Cultures are never static. Cultures change and evolve in response to a number of factors and in a bidirectional way they also change individuals even as individuals change cultures as a consequence of globalization, rapid urbanization and industrialization in many countries and settings. Some of the cultural characteristics and inherent traits in individuals are more pronetochangesthanothers.Theimpactofoneculture on another depends upon a number of factors, such as the purpose of such contact degree and the duration of this contact. If one culture invades another for political and economic reasons, the outcome is likely to be different and may lead to deculturation than if the contact is through media at a distance where changes may be slow rather than sudden. Berry, in this chapter, deﬁnes acculturation as a process of cultural and psychological change in cultural groups, families and individuals following intercultural contact. Cultural identity refers to the ways in which individuals establish and maintain connections with, and a sense of belonging to, various groups. Embedded within cultural identity are microidentities of the individual such as gender, religion, sexual orientation etc. some of which can be hidden and others are obvious. The processes and outcomes of these processes are highly variable, with large group and individual diﬀerences. This chapter focuses on describingsomeoftheseprocesses,thestrategiespeople use to deal with them, and the adaptations that result. Three questions are raised: how do individuals and groups seek to acculturate? How well do they succeed? Are there any relationships between how they go about acculturation and their psychological and sociocultural success? Berry notes that the commonest strategy is integration (deﬁned as preferring to maintain one’s cultural heritage while seeking to participate in the life of the larger society), rather than assimilation, separation or marginalization which is likely to be most adaptive.
The chapter presents the results of the research of aculturation of migrants in Eastern European countries
In Christoph, Prokhorov and Ulyanov (Theory Probab Appl 40(2):250–260, 1996) we studied properties of high-dimensional Gaussian random vectors. Yuri Vasil’evich Prokhorov initiated these investigations. In the present paper we continue these investigations. Computable error bounds of different orders with respect to n for the approximations of sample correlation coefficients and the angle between high-dimensional Gaussian vectors by the standard normal law are obtained. We give some numerical results as well. Moreover, different types of Bartlett corrections are suggested.
The chapter discusses the possibilities and limitations of different policy measures aimed at promoting behavior change at a large-group scale.
We consider an undirected multi(commodity)flow demand problem in which a supply graph is planar, each source-sink pair is located on one of three specified faces of the graph, and the capacities and demands are integer-valued and Eulerian. It is known that such a problem has a solution if the cut and (2,3)-metric conditions hold, and that the solvability implies the existence of an integer solution. We develop a purely combinatorial strongly polynomial solution algorithm.
Due to the need to reindustrialize the domestic industry at the post-industrial stage of development, it has become necessary to implement megaprojects aiming at the qualitative makeover of the national economy. The purpose of this paper is to develop an industrial megaproject risk management model and methodological support based on a comparative analysis of existing approaches and using Russian and international experience. The research has resulted in two megaproject risk management models: a fragmentary model and a comprehensive one. A risk mitigation potential analysis for ongoing megaprojects has been performed confirming the efficiency of use of the comprehensive megaproject risk management model. The suggested comprehensive risk management model allows taking into consideration the main distinctive feature of modern megaprojects, i.e. multiplicity of management entities operating on the basis of the partnership principle.
Robot navigation through crowds poses a difficult challenge to AI systems, since the methods should result in fast and efficient movement but at the same time are not allowed to compromise safety. Most approaches to date were focused on the combination of pathfinding algorithms with machine learning for pedestrian walking prediction. More recently, reinforcement learning techniques have been proposed in the research literature. In this paper, we perform a comparative evaluation of pathfinding/prediction and reinforcement learning approaches on a crowd movement dataset collected from surveillance videos taken at Grand Central Station in New York. The results demonstrate the strong superiority of state-of-the-art reinforcement learning approaches over pathfinding with state-of-the-art behavior prediction techniques.
Inconsistency of business processes can affect company profits and lead to the loss of regular customers and reputation in the market. Well managed business process has one key distinctive feature – a consistency. Checking the consistency of business process helps to reveal hidden bugs in the process model, but requires considerable labor costs and analytics. We compared two approaches to verifying consistency. The first approach is based on generating object life cycles for each object type used in process and supported by special tool as an extension for IBM WebSphere Business Modeler. Another one is a proposition to use DEMO methodology for verifying consistency. The results of research show that DEMO methodology enables significantly reduce labor costs and improve quality of analyze
This article is devoted to the comparative study of the prosody of the early Dutch, German and Russian iambic tetrameter.
In recent years more and more participants of the retail segment of the banking sector of Russia are launching platform-based value chains along with traditional linear value chains. As a result, business organizations are transforming into a complex system within which customers, banks and retail chains enter into business relations with each other as well as the platform itself, the owner of which is one of the participants of this interaction. A new kind of value exchange is the result of this which has become possible due to the existence of the platform. Platforms complement and compete with linear value chains in order to attract customers. In this article a comparison of these two types of value chains is presented using the example of purchasing goods by installments in Russia, their peculiar workings are also distinguished.
There are many applications where the comparison of histograms (discrete random variables, fuzzy set on discrete universal set) is required with the help of relationship of type ”more-less”. There are many approaches to solving this problem. The relations between some popular stochastic and fuzzy orderings are investigated in the article. The simple formulas for calculating the number of comparisons obtained, as well as established relationships between the various comparisons. The new approach for comparison of histogram is proposed in this paper too. This approach is based on the calculation of minimum directional transform of one histogram in another histogram.
The paper presents an extension for the JavaBeans component model that enables creating composed components dynamically, at runtime, without code generation. The composed components created can be used immediately for instantiation having their instances used for execution or for further components composition. The dynamic abilities are supported by extended type implementation based on additional superstructure provided with its Java API implementation and corresponding JavaBeans components. Using the component model and base components it provides, the new component composition is performed by building the composed prototype object that can be dynamically transformed into the new composed instantiable type. The component model can be used when implementing user defined types in declarative languages for event-driven models description.
The Russian Constructicon project currently prioritizes multi-word constructions that are not represented in dictionaries and that are especially useful for learners of Russian. The immediate goal is to identify constructions and determine the semantic constraints on their slots. The Russian Constructicon is being built in parallel with the Swedish Constructicon and will ultimately model the entire Russian language in terms of constructions at all levels from morpheme to discourse. The contents of the Russian Constructicon will serve learners of the language, linguists researching both language-internal and typological phenomena, and will also serve language technology applications such as spell checkers and automated readability assessment tools.