Diffculties concerning the choice of the invariants of the projective transformation groups used for the identification of the shapes of planar objects are illustrated and solutions allowing the derivation of robust identification criteria are discussed.
The chapter is focuses on the research in rural Russia. The empirical materials were studied in the historical context. The chapter helps to understand the consequences of the Russion Revolution 1917.
Our approach to the problem of charge carrier transport in homogeneous polymers assumes carrier hopping on a densely packed manifold of transport (hopping) centers retaining the short-range order of the respective single crystal. The central idea, which distinguishes it from the Bassler’s disorder theory, is that the energy scatter concerns only a small fraction of hopping centers, which begin to act as traps. The majority of isoenergetic centers build up a transfer band with microscopic mobility µ0 equal to that in the respective single crystal. The origin of the energy scatter (and traps themselves) is ascribed to the elementary voids of the fluctuation free volume forming an association with the normal hopping centers.
We consider a fractional 0-1 programming problem arising in manufacturing. The problem consists in clustering of machines together with parts processed on these machines into manufacturing cells so that intra-cell processing of parts is maximized and inter-cell movement is minimized. This problem is called Cell Formation Problem (CFP) and it is an NP-hard optimization problem with Boolean variables and constraints and with a fractional objective function. Because of its high computational complexity there are a lot of heuristics developed for it. In this paper we suggest a branch and bound algorithm which provides exact solutions for the CFP with a variable number of cells and grouping efficacy objective function. This algorithm finds optimal solutions for 21 of the 35 popular benchmark instances from literature and for the remaining 14 instances it finds good solutions close to the best known.
The cell formation problem (CFP) is an NP-hard optimization problem considered for cell manufacturing systems. Because of its high computational complexity several heuristics have been developed for solving this problem. In this paper we present a branch and bound algorithm which provides exact solutions of the CFP. This algorithm finds optimal solutions for 13 problems of the 35 popular benchmark instances from the literature.
The chapter discusses the establishment of diplomatic relations between Spain and Russia and evaluates the role of Peter I in this process. Special attention is paid to the development of trade relations between the two countries. The text used new archival documents.
Students’ grade system is a complex multifactorial process, which usually ends with a numerical estimate. The studying mindset and motivation of the student, which are inextricably interconnected, depend on the objectivity of the estimate. The major problems related to the understanding of estimate as an absolute value or a relative one, which uses comparison, are analysed. Solution methods allowing to combine positive sides of each of the approaches of evaluation are offered. These methods allow to combine both absolute and relative estimate. The following proposed approaches are taken into consideration: a modular system of training, preference of cumulative assessment, the choice of the monitoring procedure form etc. Basic parameters influencing the creation of a «fair» grade system, as well as results of the students survey regarding the factors influencing a grade system are given.
In this article I am offering some critical comments on two of the most important programs of modern social and political philosophy: transcendental pragmatics and communication theory. These considerations will cover two main problems: justification of rational prerequisites of activities, that would be common and universal for all of humanity and universal, and transparent communication, that is common for all representatives of intersubjective commonality. The first problem is the difficulty of removing the fundamental contradiction between "ones" and "someone else's", and the second is the difficulty of simulation of communication unity, that despite its universality, may serve as different packages of values.
Each developing country tries to catch up with the developed world. Unfortunately, only few economies were able to reach this purpose during last sixty years. Well-known Gershenkonђs argument - «advantage of backwardness» - does not work properly in most cases [Gershenkon, 1962]. Though imitations of technologies and governance methods are much cheaper than innovations, the imitation process is also costly and requires sophisticated approaches of choosing and harmonizing different kinds of economic policies.
The presentation considers the problem of the academic heterogeneity among universities freshmen. This problem is widely discussed in circumstances of demographic decline when higher education becomes widespread. As a result differentiation of universities based on the quality of students' freshmen arises: some universities admit predominately high-scored students, while the others have a large variation in students’ preparation level. Universities have to work with non-uniform contingent of students. In Russia the Unified State Exam (USE) is used to admit students to the universities. There are two obligatory exams (Mathematics and Russian language) and different optional exams which students can choose depending on their future direction of study. Scores for USE are the only basis for students’ admission to universities. The points of interest are simultaneously the quality of admission and its heterogeneity. Heterogeneity implies differences in the student’s USE scores in one university. The data base includes USE scores of all students enrolled in all universities in 2011-2012 in the context of different majors. The procedure of academic heterogeneity investigation has been developed with the 5-points scale of heterogeneity levels. There are two types of issues in this research. The first one includes the analysis of academic heterogeneity indicators over years and the classification of universities based on their heterogeneity. The second issue concerns intra-university level and includes the following points: • Identification of factors that influence academic heterogeneity of enrolled students • Analysis of heterogeneity in the context of different majors • Analysis of the dynamics of academic heterogeneity over the years • The university contribution to the dynamics of heterogeneity during the period of education. • Recommendations for dealing with heterogeneous contingent of students. For assessing student’s heterogeneity traditional statistical methods were applied as well as mathematical modeling based on Item Response Theory (IRT). The use of IRT methods allows us to place all the data on the unique metric scale, construct classification of universities on the quality of admission and assess heterogeneity. Despite the differences in the systems of state exams and the academic selectivity in various countries the methods developed can be used to assess the heterogeneity of university freshmen in each country.
In the chapter concerning inbreeding in Russian universities the authors draw data from several sources (studies of higher educational sector in Russia and statistics from the Ministry of education and science and Russian Statistical Agency) to estimate consequences of inbreeding on micro and macro levels.
About AICT2015 Conference: On behalf of the Steering Committee, we welcome you to the 9th International Conference on Application of Information and Communication Technologies (AICT2015) devoted to 100th anniversary of Southern Federal University will be held in Rostov-on-Don, Russia on the 14, 15 and 16th of October 2015. The AICT2015 Conference will build on the success of the previous conferences, which were held in Astana, Baku, Tashkent and Tbilisi. - See more at: http://aict.info/2015/#sthash.NfiISWrf.dpuf
This articles deals with the problems of assessment for Korean Language students at HSE.The author made an effort to show new Korean language assessment criteria for grammar, speaking, reading and writing skills.
As any other genre, academic paper can be characterized by its own specific rules and fitches. The authors assume that academic style fitches called in this research “style markers” can be modelled by means of ontology engineering. The article is aimed at describing the academic style markers ontology design and its practical using. The designed ontology is divided into two levels. The first level provides information about linguistic terms and the second level consists of style markers, which were suggested by experts in linguistic. It is assumed that two tasks will be solved on the basis of developed ontology. The first task is generating lexical-semantic templates, which is used to identify the list of markers in a text. Due to ontology approach and Domain Specific Language (DSL) technologies applying users can be able to extend and modify marker templates. The second task is developing an expert system rules for text style enhancement.