Are people eternally destined to live in cities? Are jungles made of concrete, metal and glass the only environment in which they deserve to exist – even in the remote future? Today, these important questions coexist with various correlations and consequences in multiple areas of life and expertise. Historically, mankind emerged from rural environments, which have an inherent closeness to natural wildness, and endlessly strived for life in the city. This used to be the process and, until recently, it seemed to be unidirectional. However, people currently live in a period of radical change. Recovering the ancestral reunion with Nature is not only a matter of personal choice; it is becoming an imperative, a “Hobson’s choice,” indeed. This trend stands true for many societies in the contemporary world, including Russia.
This chapter attempts to demonstrate that altruistic social identities contribute to the development of an altruistic personal identity that results in relieving others’ suffering. Previous research has primarily focused on self-values or personal identities in predicting altruistic orientations or behaviors; little empirical research has linked personal values to social identities, and almost no work expands this to explore the implications for altruistic obligations that potentially help alleviate the suffering of others. We address this issue using a new cross-national survey, the Moral Schemas, Cultural Conflict, and Socio-Political Action Survey (2015) that includes data from four countries: United States, France, Turkey and South Korea. We operationalize altruistic social identities as identifying with groups that prioritize benevolence and universalism and altruistic personal identities as emphasizing benevolence and universalism for self. Our results mostly support our argument that identifying with groups that value benevolence and caring for others (holding altruistic social identities) contributes to the development of an altruistic personal identity with some exceptions in Turkey and South Korea. These findings have significant implications for future research on the altruistic self and alleviating suffering in different cultural contexts.
The Arctic region is one of the most sensitive and vulnerable to climate change. The dramatic melting of Arctic ice has several negative consequences for the whole ecosystem as well as for a way of life of native people but it also creates new opportunities for the region. First, it opens up potential for exploitation of large deposits of natural resources such oil and gas. Second, it shrinks Arctic shipping routes which offer significant economic savings for many countries. These benefits has already attracted many countries, both Arctic and non-Arctic, thus resulting in potential conflict of interests. In our paper we present a mathematical approach to the problem of conflict resolution in the Arctic. First, we propose an approach how the level of interest in each part of the region should be evaluated with respect to main resources - oil, gas, fish and maritime routes. Second, we present several models of areas allocation to resolve the problem of conflict resolution. As a result, we applied several scenarios of areas allocation, evaluated their efficiency based on the total satisfaction level and identified conflict zones in the Arctic.
Though the issue of economic cycles has been subject to numerous studies, this problem has retained its high importance. What is more, the current crisis has confirmed in an extremely convincing way the point that, notwithstanding all the successes achieved by many states in their countercyclical policies, no economy is guaranteed against uncontrollable upswings and unexpected crises and recessions that tend to follow such upswings. In addition to this, the financial globalization has increased substantially the risks of such cyclical fluctuations.
The notion of economic cycles is regarded ambiguously in economic science. In modern theories, business cycles are frequently defined as fluctuations of actual output around its potential value which is achieved in full employment conditions (see, e.g., Fischer, Dornbusch, and Schmalensee 1988). However, quite frequently economics does not achieve on the rise the potential GDP volume when a recession phase starts (such situations are described in more detail in Гринин, Коротаев 2009а: ch. 1). Thus, economic cycle, in our opinion, can be defined as periodical fluctuation around medium line of production volume, where repeating phases of rise and decrease can be specified.
In the model that we propose below we have tried to briefly describe the main features of medium-term cycles of business activity, or business cycles (7–11 years) that are also known as Juglar cycles after the prominent 19th-century French economist Clement Juglar (1819–1905), who investigated these cycles in detail (Juglar 1862, 1889).
 Many economists maintain that business cycles are quite regular with the characteristic period of 7–11 years. However, some suggest that economic cycles are irregular (see, for example, Fischer, Dornbusch, and Schmalensee 1988). As we suppose, comparative regularity of business cycles is observed rather at the World System scale than in every country taken separately. This corroborates the important role of exogenous factors for the rise and progress of business cycles (for more detail see below).
 Medium-term cycles (7–11 years) were first named after Juglar in works by Joseph Schumpeter, who developed the typology of different-length business-cycles (Schumpeter 1939, 1954; see also Kwasnisсki 2008).
The purpose of the study is to identify the specific characteristics of HRM practices aimed at ambidextrous learning in innovation-active companies of the BRIC countries. The study for the first time compares the ambidextrous learning practices and their trends for convergence in BRICs. The methodology involves descriptive analysis of HRM practices in 200 innovation active companies of BRICs. Results of the study indicate that there are considerable convergence trends within innovation-active companies of BRIC. All countries in general are oriented on knowledge exploitation with their use of specific HRM practices. There are however significant differences within BRIC countries with regard to knowledge exploration.
Several previous evaluations of memory models for SMT-based deductive verification tools have shown that the choice of memory model may significantly affect both the number of automatically discharged verification conditions and the capabilities of the verification tool. One of the most efficient memory models for deductive verification of low-level C code is based on region analysis and component-as-array modeling. However, originally this model doesn’t support many C language idioms widely used in low-level system code including the Linux kernel. The paper suggests a modification of this model that extends it with full support for arbitrarily nested structures, unions and arrays, arbitrary pointer arithmetic and general pointer type casts. The extension for nested structures and arrays requires no additional annotation overhead. The support for pointer arithmetic, unions and pointer type casts generally requires user annotations. The proposed model fully preserves the performance of the original memory model for earlier supported code. Preliminary practical evaluation on an industrial security kernel module showed a small specification overhead required for code where the proposed model is not fully automatic.
América Central, también llamada Centroamérica*, es un subcontinente que conecta América del Norte con América del Sur. Geográficamente se situa entre la fronreta de México y la frontera noroccidental de Colombia, rodeada por el océano Pacífico y el océano Atlántico. Políticamente se divide en los 7 países independientes de Guatemala, Belice, Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica y Panamá. Su extensión territorial es de 523.780 km2 y su población es de unos 41.739.000 habitantes. El territorio cubre una superficie un poco mayor que la de España. Prodiga en recursos naturales, su suelo es sumamente fértil, apto para todo tipo de cultivos. El canal de Panamá además de facilitar la comunicación marítima entre dos océanos se hizo en América Central un paso obigado para los buques de todo el mundo. El subcontinente tiene todo para atraer al turismo internacional: hermosas playas, selvas, montañas, volcanes, apasibles lagos, ruinas de antiguas civilizaciones, etc. Pero la región aún está a la espera de que sus gobiernos encaren tres duros desafíos: vencer la pobreza, consolidar sus débiles democracias y apagar los odios que dejaron los largos años de guerras civiles en sus países.
In the Novel Gravity’s Rainbow, which formally depicts the end of The Second World War and the beginning of the postwar period, the characters being American culture representatives get into a European city medium. A popular phrase “Toto, I have a feeling we're not in Kansas any more…” that was an epigraph to Part III of the book proves that in the novel there is a theme of an alien and at the same time so familiar to the American culture space
In this paper, we conduct a meta-analysis of breakoff rates in mobile web surveys. We test if an optimization of web surveys for mobile devices, invitation mode (SMS vs. e-mail), survey length, expected duration in the invitation, survey design (scrolling vs. paging), prerecruitment, number of reminders, design complexity (grids, drop-down questions, sliders, images, progress indicator), incentives, an opportunity to skip survey questions, and an opportunity to select the preferred mode (PC or mobile web) have an effect on breakoffs. The meta-analysis is based on 14 studies (39 independent samples) conducted using online panels – probability-based and non-probability-based. We found that mobile optimized surveys, email invitations, shorter surveys, using a prerecruitment, more reminders, a less complex design, and an opportunity to choose the preferred survey mode decrease breakoff rates in mobile web surveys. No effect of a scrolling design, incentives, indicating expected duration in the invitation, and an opportunity to skip survey questions were found.
Motor fuel distribution problem is considered. Accepting some assumptions it can be reduced to a well-known vechicle routing problem with capacity constraints. Ant colony optimization approach is suggested for solving CVRP. Modified ant algorithms are performed. Computational results for some benchmarks are given in compare with classical ant algorithms.
A two-step approach to taxonomy construction is presented. On the first step the frame of taxonomy is built manually according to some representative educational materials. On the second step, the frame is refined using the Wikipedia category tree and articles. Since the structure of Wikipedia is rather noisy, a procedure to clear the Wikipedia category tree is suggested. A string-to-text relevance score, based on annotated suffix trees, is used several times to 1) clear the Wikipedia data from noise; 2) to assign Wikipedia categories to taxonomy topics; 3) to choose whether the category should be assigned to the taxonomy topic or stay on intermediate levels. The resulting taxonomy consists of three parts: the manully set upper levels, the adopted Wikipedia category tree and the Wikipedia articles as leaves.Also, a set of so-called descriptors is assigned to every leaf; these are phrases explaining aspects of the leaf topic. The method is illustrated by its application to two domains: a) Probability theory and mathematical statistics, b) “Numerical analysis” (both in Russian).
The paper describes the results of an empirical study of integrating bigram collocations and similarities between them and unigrams into topic models. First of all, we propose a novel algorithm PLSA-SIM that is a modification of the original algorithm PLSA. It incorporates bigrams and maintains relationships between unigrams and bigrams based on their component structure. Then we analyze a variety of word association measures in order to integrate top-ranked bigrams into topic models. All experiments were conducted on four text collections of different domains and languages. The experiments distinguish a subgroup of tested measures that produce topranked bigrams, which demonstrate signifi- cant improvement of topic models quality for all collections, when integrated into PLSASIM algorithm.
The paper proposes a new method for facilitating knowledge exchange by seeking relevant university experts for commenting actual information events arising in the open environment of a modern economical cluster. This method is based on a new mathematical model of ontology concepts matching. We propose to use in the formal core of our method a new modification of Latent Dirichlet allocation. The method and the mathematical model of ontology matching were validated in the form of a software-based solution: the newly designed decision support system titled EXPERTIZE. The system regularly monitors different text sources in the Internet, performs document analysis and provides university employees with critical information about relevant events according a developed matching algorithm. In the proposed solution we made several contributions to the advances of knowledge processing, including: new modifications of topic modeling method suitable for application in expert finding tasks, integration of new algorithms and existing ontology services to show feasibility of the solution.
The term “pattern” refers to a combination of values of some features such that objects with these feature values significantly differ from other objects. This concept is a useful tool for the analysis of behavior of objects in both statics and dynamics. If the panel data describing the functioning of objects in time is available, we can analyze pattern changing behavior of the objects and identify either well adapted to the environment objects or objects with unusual and alarming behavior.In this paper we apply static and dynamic pattern analysis to the analysis of innovative development of the Russian regions in the long run and obtain a classification of regions by the similarity of the internal structure of these indicators and groups of regions carrying out similar strategies.
In this paper we describe a methodology that allows researchers to measure empirically, in the form of well-defined indicators, the extent to which economic analysis and evidence is been applied in the enforcement of competition law, using data collected from the decisions of competition authorities. By mapping the value of these indicators to different legal standards, our methodology also allows one to identify the legal standards adopted in the assessment of different conducts that were investigated by the authorities. The policy implications of empirical work in this area are potentially very important, since the extent to which economic analysis is applied in the assessment of anti-competitive conduct by competition authorities may well influence the quality of this assessment (i.e. the quality of enforcing competition law, measured by the extent to which decision-errors and deterrence effects are minimised). Empirical analysis using the indicators can be used to undertake comparative analysis in different countries, to examine the extent to which authorities favour specific legal standards in the assessment of specific conducts and the way in which the judicial review process treats decisions depending on the legal standard used.
The proposed model is intended to assessment of company's operation effectiveness, which is an important factor at investment decisions making. There are compared indicators of the growth rate, profitability and risk for shares placed on various stock exchanges with an assessment of the intrinsic value and management efficiency of company. The information received is useful for investors and company managers for operating on stock markets.
We construct a mathematical model of anti-virus protection of local area networks. The model belongs to the class of regenerative processes. To protect the network from the external attacks of viruses and the spread of viruses within the network we apply two methods: updating antivirus signatures and reinstallings of operating systems (OS). Operating systems are reinstalled in the case of failure of any of the computers (non- scheduled emergent reinstalling) or at scheduled time moments. We consider a maximization problem of an average unit income. The cumulative distribution function (CDF) of the scheduled intervals between complete OS reinstallings is considered as a control. We prove that the optimal CDF has to be degenerate, ie, it is localized at a point τ τ
One of the approaches for the nearest neighbor search problem is to build a network which nodes correspond to the given set of indexed objects. In this case the search of the closest object can be thought as a search of a node in a network. A procedure in a network is called decentralized if it uses only local information about visited nodes and its neighbors. Networks, which structure allows efficient performing the nearest neighbor search by a decentralized search procedure started from any node, are of particular interest especially for pure distributed systems. Several algorithms that construct such networks have been proposed in literature. However, the following questions arise: “Are there network models in which decentralized search can be performed faster?”; “What are the optimal networks for the decentralized search?”; “What are their properties?”. In this paper we partially give answers to these questions. We propose a mathematical programming model for the problem of determining an optimal network structure for decentralized nearest neighbour search. We have found the exact solutions for a regular lattice of size 4x4 and heuristic solutions for sizes from 5x5 to 7x7. As a distance function we use L_1, L_2 and L_inf metrics. We hope that our results and the proposed model will initiate study of optimal network structures for decentralized nearest neighbour search.
We examine an equilibrium concept for 2-person non-cooperative games with boundedly rational agents which we call Nash-2 equilibrium. It is weaker than Nash equilibrium and equilibrium in secure strategies: a player takes into account not only current strategies but also all profitable next-stage responses of the partners to her deviation from the current profile that reduces her relevant choice set. We provide a condition for Nash-2 existence in finite games and complete characterization of Nash-2 equilibrium in strictly competitive games. Nash-2 equilibria in Hotelling price-setting game are found and interpreted in terms of tacit collusion.