Точность и сензитивность как два аспекта распознавания эмоций
When touching different objects, we process their emotional qualities: some objects are pleasant to the touch, while others are not. The neural correlates of affective processing of touch are mostly investigated via stimulation of CT afferents, which innervate only hairy skin and encode affective properties of the stimuli. However, emotional qualities of touch can be processed via glabrous skin as well, despite the absence of CT afferents. In the present fMRI study, we investigated the neural mechanisms of affective processing of touch in glabrous skin. Participants touched various textures, evaluating them on emotional scales (cruel-kind, unpleasant-pleasant). We found that the angular gyrus and supramarginal gyrus are more active for textures evaluated as “cruel” as opposed to “kind” ones. The secondary somatosensory cortex, caudate and superior frontal gyrus are more active for textures evaluated as “unpleasant” as opposed to “pleasant” ones. Overall, the study shows how some affective properties of touch can be processed beyond the CT afferents system.
Cross-modal associations appear when a stimulus from one modality associates with a stimulus from another modality (e.g., when color associates with sound). In the present study we investigated cross-modal correspondences between films and textures. Participants watched fragments of movies with elements of tragedy and comedy. Next, they touched different textures (e.g., silk, marble, velvet) and associated them with the movies. Systematic links were found between films and textures. Films with comic elements were associated with glass pebbles and a slime toy. The study also tested the emotion-mediation hypothesis wherein emotional evaluation mediates cross-modal associations between cinema and textures. It was found that the evaluation of movies and textures on several emotional and semantic scales (e.g., sad, happy, clean, dirty) mediates cross-modal associations.
In this chapter, I argue that the Durkheimian theory of the sacred is a crucial yet not fully recognized resource for cognitive sociology. It contains not only a theory of culture (which is acknowledged in contemporary sociology), but also a vision of culture-cognition relations. Thus, Durkheimian cultural sociology allows us to understand the crucial role the sacred/profane opposition plays in structuring culture, perception and thought. Based on a number of theories, I also show how another opposition – between the pure and impure modes of the sacred, allows us to explain dynamic features of the sacred and eventually provides a basic model of social change. While explicating this vision and resultant opportunities for sociological analysis I also criticize ‘cognition apart from culture’ approaches established within cognitive sociology. I argue, thus, that culture not only participates in cognition but is an intrinsic ingredient of the human mind. Culture is not a chaotic and fragmented set of elements, as some sociologists imply to a greater or lesser degree, but a system; and as such it is an inner environment for human thought and social action. This system, however, is governed not by formal logic, as some critics of the autonomy of culture presuppose, but by concrete configurations of emotionally-charged categories, created and re-created in social interactions.
The article aims at analyzing the means of expression of feelings and emotional states in German children’s literature in the works of Kirsten Boie and at identifying the frequency of use of these means at four levels of the language: phonetic, morphological, lexical and syntactic, which will help to determine the most used means of expressing emotiveness at each of the analyzed levels of the language. The research was carried out on the material of the following works of the German writer: King-Kong, das Schulschwein (1995); King-Kong, Allerhand und mehr (2004); Verflixt – ein Nix! (2003); Nix wie weg (2013); Jenny ist meistens schön friedlich (2012); Sophies schlimme Briefe (2011); Paule ist ein Glücksgriff (2010); Die liebe Familie (2004). The total text volume was 1,453 pages. 4,441 units of analysis served as the empirical material (2,342 at the phonetic level, 134 at the morphologi-cal level, 1,131 at the lexical level, 834 at the syntactic level). The analysis of the category of emotiveness was carried out at the pho-netic, morphological, lexical and syntactic levels of the language using the methods of integral text analysis, contextual analysis and a descriptive method. To contrast normal speech and speech in a state of emotional tension, an analysis of the lexical-semantic and syntactic shifts of emotional speech was conducted, as well as a combinatorial semantic analysis. The method of emotive valence was used to study language tools and their combinations in the texts. The quantitative analysis method was used to determine the most frequently used means of expressing emotiveness at each of the studied levels of the language. The following results were ob-tained. First and foremost, emotions in the works of Kirsten Boie are expressed with the help of phonetic (graphical) means: excla-mation mark, italics and full stop. At the lexical level, the priority is mostly given to stylistically colored synonyms, colloquial vo-cabulary and interjections. To describe the observed emotional states, the priority is given to verbs of speaking used with adverbs expressing some emotional states. At the syntactic level, emotions are usually expressed with the help of rhetorical exclamation, repetition, parceling and inversion. The morphological means are used very rarely. Interestingly, the same emotions and feelings can be expressed with the help of different means of the language and, vice versa, the same expressive language means can convey dif-ferent, sometimes opposite, emotions and emotional states. It should also be noted that the analyzed methods do not always directly convey the emotional state of the characters, sometimes they help to express the emotional background and the tonality of fiction books.
The well-known modern dimensional models of affect include two or three dimensions. They are typically based on self-reports using English emotion terms. It remains unclear to what extent these models can be applied to different cultures and languages. The present study is aimed at finding the dimensions underlying the descriptions of emotional states in Russian and suggests a structural model of affect based on these findings. At the first stage, a comprehensive list of Russian nouns denoting emotional states was compiled. It comprised 330 words and was reduced to a list of 56 words. At the second stage, participants rated their emotional states using this list. The exploratory factor analysis yielded three dimensions that underlay participant descriptions of the emotional states – negative affect with low activation, positive affect with high activation, and tension. This structure has at least three notable features. First, valence is not a bipolar factor like in some other structural models of affect. Instead, it splits into two orthogonal factors. Second, valence is somewhat related to arousal, namely positive affect is associated with high arousal and negative affect with low arousal. Third, emotional states related to tension and uncertainty form a separate factor. This factor presumably reflects pure tension independent from valence. This model can be used for developing Russian-based measures for the assessment of mood.
This study explores the hypothesis that language of testing and mood states can influence creativity in bilinguals. Arabic-English bilingual speakers were induced into positive or negative mood states using film clips and recall-of-events procedures. Then, participants’ creativity was assessed with the Abbreviated Torrance Test for Adults. Participants were tested in either English or Arabic. A Picture Naming Test revealed English as participants’ stronger language and Arabic as their weaker language. Testing in English was found to enhance verbal fluency and originality, as compared to testing in Arabic. Most importantly, an interactive effect of induction (positive, negative) and language of testing (English, Arabic) on creativity emerged. The results revealed two conditions beneficial for participants’ nonverbal originality: a positive mood state when tested in English and a negative mood state when tested in Arabic. These results are discussed in light of the interactive effect of mood induction and linguistic context (stronger vs. weaker) on an individual’s creativity.