Точность и сензитивность как два аспекта распознавания эмоций
The article is devoted to the analysis of the Durkheim’s “The Division of Labor in Society” in the case of the sociology of emotions. Social solidarity problem is one of the fundamental problems of sociology. There is an opinion that it is impossible to resolve the social solidarity problem excluding emotions. “The Division of Labor in Society” is one of the main works in the field of social solidarity. Durkheim considered and characterized types of social solidarity. But in contemporary science, the authors prefer “The Elementary Forms of the Religious Life” for the analysis. It makes an omission in the study of origins of the sociology of emotions and the role of emotions in maintaining social solidarity. Durkheim’s ideas have rethinking and reflection in the work of the contemporary sociologists of emotions. The article demonstrates current authors rely on their arguments on the Durkheim’s ideas. The aims of the paper are to identify background of the sociology of emotions in “The Division of Labor in Society”, to present how Durkheim determined the social nature of emotions, their role in the description of the social solidarity types, what types of emotions are involved in creating social ties from the position of Durkheim. With the help of Durkheim’s ideas, we can identify the outlines for solving the problem of social solidarity.
We can make a conclusion that the role of emotion in the maintaining of social solidarity changes with the change of the social solidarity types in the Durkheim’s concept. Mechanical solidarity is based on common ideas, feelings; the individual is completely absorbed by the collective. Crimes arouse negative emotions such as anger, revenge, and shame, which are become instruments of protection. Sympathy exists only in the institutions of family and marriage. In opposition, organic solidarity is based on the division of social labor; the collective is replaced by the individual. As a result of changing social solidarity type, the positive emotions participate in its reproduction: altruism, sympathy, that going beyond the family and friendship and appearing in the labor relations, happiness. In the Durkheim’s concept emotions have to be common and collective for the reproduction of social solidarity. Kind of specific emotions doesn’t very important. Social solidarity can be destroyed by the loss of the collective nature of emotions. In conclusion, Durkheim’s ideas can be relevant for contemporary society and can be the basis for further development of the solution of the problem of social solidarity in the field of the sociology of emotions.
Activation of the limbic structures, and above all the amygdala, is believed to be evidence of a subjective emotional experience. However, a recent paper published by Boubela and colleagues (Boubela et al, 2015) discredits most of the fMRI research concerning BOLD-signal changes in the amygdala region. It was revealed that the BOLD signal increase during perception of affective stimuli might take its origin not from the grey matter itself, but from a large vessel situated near the amygdala: the basal vein of Rothental. In the present research, we attempted to estimate the contribution of veins and venules located near amygdala into BOLD signal changes from the region of interest. We found no systematic increase of BOLD signal in the group of veins within the region of interest in comparison with the BOLD signal in the actual gray matter of the amygdala. At the same time, correlations were found between the BOLD signal in the vessels and the gray matter. The obtained results allow us to interpret the BOLD signal from veins and venules in the region of interest as non systematic noise capable of masking or weakening the observed experimental effects. The method used in this work can be recommended for further fMRI studies of the amygdala.
Neuroimaging research in emotion regulation reveals a decrease of amygdala response to affective stimuli when the stimuli are perceived during the performance of a cognitive task. Two types of tasks are usually used to investigate this effect: one distracts attention from the emotional content of stimuli and another directly addresses the emotional content, such as identification of the emotional facial expression. The present fMRI study tested the effect of a third type of task: a memory task that promotes attraction of one’s attention to the emotional stimuli, but does not directly address the emotional content. A total of 44 volunteers were randomly assigned to one of two groups. In the MRI scanner, participants in the experimental group were asked to memorize emotional and neutral images taken from the IAPS (International Affective Picture System) database. Their recognition memory was subsequently tested after the scanning. Participants in the control group passively viewed the same picture set. The ROI analysis of the BOLD signal change revealed a leftward asymmetry of amygdala activation during the passive viewing of the pictures and a rightward shift of activation induced by the memory task. Results from the control ROIs demonstrated the phenomena of “inattentional deafness” in the auditory cortex and functional asymmetry in the visual cortex. The results are discussed in terms of complex functional connections between the amygdala, sensory cortices, and frontal regions of the brain.