Курение и экономическая активность
The shift from a centrally planned to a market-based economy involves, amongst other elements, the restructuring of state-owned or privatized enterprises. Realigning product lines, adopting new technology and imposing sound finances are all important stages in the integration of enterprises into world markets.
This book analyses the efficiency and equity of the economic restructuring in the two largest successor states of the Soviet Union, Russia and Ukraine. It raises important questions such as why these countries have been relatively slow to pursue restructuring policies, how the transition has affected labour markets and institutions, and how it impacted on poverty and social safety. The analysis is based on a careful examination of micro-level data, documenting the experiences of and interactions between individuals and institutions.
In the article the classification of indicators of efficiency of scientific activity, and also the list of criteria which they should satisfy are suggested. The indicator of productivity of scientific activity used in Russia (IPSA) is analyzed and its limitation for measurement of the results of scientific activity is proved. New IPSA, the technique of their calculation and the way of calculation of the wages of the faculty on the basis of these indicators are worked out.
scientific activity, a productivity indicator, a citing index, the impact factor