Кластерные отношения в России и региональная политика развития кластеров
Albeit being a trending topic in the world’s research literature, clusters have not been fully explored in the case of former planned economies with their specific peculiarities. In particular, there is little empirical research on Russian clusters. Therefore, the history of the formation and the conditions for the functioning of clusters in these countries have their own specific features. A study of Russian clusters allows us to compare their results with similar data for other countries, which indicate the presence of a positive effect for enterprises from working in a cluster, although not in all cases. The paper examines the effect of operating as part of a cluster for industrial enterprises in Russia. The main method of study is regression analysis of the production function with the binary variable ‘Cluster’. The targets of the study are industrial enterprises in 15 clusters in Russia that receive support from government programs. The reference group included businesses that are similar to those in the study group in terms of specialization and number of employees and are located in Russian regions with no clusters. Enterprises for the control group were selected according to the similarity of the type of economic activity and the size of the enterprise. In total, data were collected on the results of 368 enterprises, for the period from 2006 to 2015. Data was used as panel data.Financial and economic indicators for industrial enterprises were retrieved from the Ruslana database. Therefore, the results enable us to conclude, that in Russia in considered industrial sectors, in general, businesses, located in clusters, are more efficient, than ones outside clusters, but the degree of such efficiency is not high. These results do not completely correlate with foreign ones, where the researcher usually notes more pronounced effects.
Comparison of the characteristics of innovative activity of domestic small enterprises with similar indicators of foreign countries indicates that at present in Russia the potential of small business in the innovation sphere is not sufficiently realized. This is indicated by the results of the comparison with EU countries that have a high level of small business development. It is shown that in many respects the current situation is caused by the existing barriers for the development of innovative activity of small enterprises in Russia: a lack of financial resources, a wear and tear of the resource-and-technical base, weak cooperative connections, etc. At the same time, the state of innovative activity of small business in Russia is characterized by a high degree of regional heterogeneity. The study detected the conditions and factors that have a significant impact on the growth of innovative activity of small businesses in the regions of Russia. In addition, clusters of subjects of the Russian Federation, differing in characteristics of innovation activity of small industrial enterprises, were identified, and possible directions of support were revealed.
The article addresses the implications and preconditions for designing innovation policy for regions. Specifically the text shows the role and place of innovations in official socio-economic forecasts of Saint Petersburg and assesses the impact of clusters on enhancing competitiveness of the region.
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Nowadays, efficiency of scientific work is widely measured by publication performance. This procedure is mostly implemented on a micro level only: a scientist, a department, a university, etc. At the same time, there is no systemic mechanism or measurement structure on a sub-national level while other indices, including expenditures on scientific research are determined and planned on the regional level. This article proposes inter-temporal and inter-regional empirical analyses of the above-mentioned phenomenon on the subnational level of the Russian Federation. The authors argue that such an approach could be quite useful and effective for monitoring the situation on the sub-national level as it could create some additional opportunities. The research also embraces the cluster analysis of regional publications in the Russian Federation. The authors pay special attention to regional differentiation by Scopus/Web of Science, HAC and RSCI publications.
The present investigation considers phenomenon of tourism cluster as a theoretical model of region tourism complex administration. Basing on authors’ approach to theoretical analysis, deep investigation of the concept “tourism cluster” was realized. Following the results of the analysis mentioned, we described a number of theoretical approaches to the category of tourism cluster. All the approaches mentioned were presented in two different ways: static and dynamic ones. The dynamic model provided a general view on historical development of the category “tourism cluster” in the scope of economic theory.
Basing on complex analysis results, we created our own “system and agglomeration” approach to the concept of “tourism cluster”. The approach mentioned was structured as follows: authors’ interpretation of the category “tourism cluster”, feature-based table, tourism cluster graphical model, authors’ methodology of tourism cluster identification and complex analysis of this type system.
New methodology was tested on the case of Perm krai.
The set of theoretical and practical innovations suggested in the present research is considered as universal one and it could be used in the practice of other regions administration. The present monograph could be recommended to the specialists working in the sphere of public administration ( specially to those of them who is responsible for tourism policy); to students of university programs related with tourism , economics, public administration and to all of those who are interested in the sphere of special development and tourism development in the Russian Federation.