Использование НКРЯ в свете применения теории национально-языковой ориентации
The article describes linguistic and conceptual characteristics reflected in the text of the famous Anglo-Saxon ballad “Thomas of Erceldoune” belonging to the pen of Thomas Learmont (the end of the 13th century). The mapping out of basic language and conceptual categories help to render the author’s deeper semantic constructs aimed at reflection of Celtic and Christian outlook of the Middle Ages. The thorough analysis of the ballad text from Thornton manuscript explicates which conceptual senses are profiled in Sergey Shabalov’ translation and what is transferred in the translation of Walter Scott’s variant in the poetic work of Samuil Marshak. The integrative cognitive methodology introduced by the authors of this article reveals the conceptual information and type of knowledge embodied in the original and then degree of representation emerging in the Russian language interpretations.
The paper discusses sociolinguistic implementations of statistical analysis of the spoken subcorpus of the Russian National Corpus. Given the considerable size of the corpus (about 10 mln tokens), an analysis of co-variation of various linguistic parameters with one of the few sociolinguistic parameters available – the speaker’s gender – may give rich and interesting results. One specific example of co-variation is considered in detail: the mean length of the utterance (in tokens). Comparing this parameter in public communication shows statistically significant difference between the speech of men and women (men talk more), while the same difference is absent in private communication. Another important parameter is the gender of the addressee. Again, co-variation is quite different in public and private discourse. In private communication, the utterances are longer when addressing someone of the same sex, the difference between men and women is not statistically significant. In public communication, the utterances are longer when addressing a woman, whether the speaker herself is a man or woman. These conclusions are consistent with the results of sociolinguistic gender studies obtained elsewhere and by other methods. Linguistic difference between men and women are not absolute but depend on the communicative situation (public vs. private). Public discourse is a playground for linguistic competition in which men are the winning party. In private discourse, competition dissolves.
Philological research, especially in the field of literature, is usually considered a "thing-in-itself"; the intrinsic value of this phenomenon involves extremely intuitive, creative, "human-readable" analysis. Meanwhile, modern variety of computer programs (semantic text referentors, tag clouds, concordansers, etc.), created also for the humanities, such as sociology, psychology, management, cannot but draw a philologist’s attention. The steps, how to work with a parallel subcorpus in Russian National Korpus, described in detail. Reviewed freeware LR aligner (for non-commercial use), compares translations in Russian the novel "All Red" by J.Chmielewska. As examples of lexical items selected the modal word "avos’", the word "nakonets" as an introductory and the circumstances of the word "ves’" and "tsely". The Program LF aligner treated three translations of the novel, the authors are M.Krongauz, V.Selivanova, O. Kuznetsova. Consistent description of the existing programs, testing them on art material and comparison of the received data with the existing traditional research, especially in the field of philology and foreign language teaching, is a new step of a text analysis.