Современный аспект универсальной инструментальной грамотности: Программирование.
Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) is frequently used to index individual differences in decision-making under uncertainty, particularly in atypical (clinical) populations. However, it is rarely analyzed as a learning task, and research on the predictors of performance on the IGT in normative populations is scarce. Here, we focused on tolerance and intolerance for uncertainty as two traits that could potentially influence subjects’ IGT performance. Using mixed modeling analysis of longitudinal experimental data (n=60, 5 blocks) we showed that tolerance for uncertainty predicted the initial level of risk in IGT as manifested in the proportion of “bad decks” chosen; at the same time, intolerance for uncertainty predicted explorative learning in IGT as manifested in the number of deck switches after a loss and its decline over the course of the experiment. The results are discussed in the context of viewing IGT as capturing a set of dynamic decision making processes that rely on learning, risk taking, and exploration.
Embodied cognition theory implies that speech is largely based on the body motor and sensory experience. The question, which is crucial for understanding the origin of language, is how our brain transforms sensory-motor experience and gets access to word semantic representation. We developed an auditory-motor experimental procedure that allowed investigating neural underpinning of word meaning acquisition by way of associative "trial-and-error" learning paradigm that mimics basic aspects of natural language learning. Participants were presented with eight pseudowords; four of them were assigned to specific body part movements during learning blocks – through commencing actions by one of participant’s left or right extremities and receiving a feedback. The other pseudowords did not require actions and were used as controls. Magnetoencephalogram was recorded during passive listening of the pseudowords before and after learning blocks. The cortical sources of the magnetic evoked responses were reconstructed using distributed source modeling. Learning of novel word meaning through word-action association selectively increased neural specificity for these words in the auditory parabelt areas responsible for spectrotemporal analysis, as well as in articulatory areas, both located in the left hemisphere. The extent of neural changes was linked to the degree of language learning, specifically implicating the physiological contribution of the left perisylvian cortex in the speech learning success.
Complex Rule Learning Among Students with Intuitive and Rational Thinking Styles
The relation between thinking styles (intuitive and rational) and performance in a multiple-cue learning task was investigated. We expected the intuitive thinking style to be positively correlated with the percentage of correct answers and metacognitive sensitivity (the ability to differentiate between one's own correct and wrong answers). The intuitive thinking style was positively correlated with confidence judgments. Meanwhile, the rational style was negatively correlated with those judgments. However, there was no statistically significant correlation between accuracy and intuitive or rational thinking styles. Metacognitive sensitivity in the learning phase was positively related to the “intuitive ability” subscale. Situational decision-making strategies (intuitive and rational) were correlated with intuitive and rational thinking styles respectively. Accuracy in the learning phase was somewhat higher among participants with the analytical decision-making strategy, versus those participants who utilized the intuitive strategy.
This article presents the up-to-date views on the continuous education and the tendencies to business-education development. The learning during the whole life is the vital necessity of our days. The peculiarity of the continuous education consists in the way of the payment for it. It can be payed by the organization which is interested in the improvement of the professional skills of the employees or by the employees themselves, if they participate in the continuous education program. In the framework of this logic the business -education is some special field of the continuous education. Now days business-education and continuous education are some definite system.
An experimental approach was created for the comparative investigation of the cognitive abilities of the glaucous-winged gull (Larus glaucescens) in their natural habitat. The territoriality of gulls during the breeding period and the fact that the gulls inhabiting the territory of the Komandorsky Reserve are practically not in fear of humans allowed us to work with individually recognized birds directly at their nest sites inside the colony. The possibility of using this approach to investigate their cognitive abilities was demonstrated on 24 gulls, in particular, to investigate their abilities for relative size generalization. The first experiment illustrated that the gulls are able to learn to discriminate two pairs of stimuli according to the feature: 'larger' or 'smaller'. They were then given a test to transfer the discriminative rule in which novel combinations of the same stimuli were used. The gulls successfully coped with only a few of these tests. In the next experiment the birds were taught to discriminate four pairs of similar stimuli. The majority of the birds coped with the tests to transfer the discriminative rule both to the novel combinations of familiar stimuli, and also to the novel stimuli of the familiar category (items of different colour and shape). However, none of the birds transferred the discriminative rule to stimuli of a novel category (sets differing by number of components). Thus, in their ability to generalize at a preconceptual level gulls are more comparable with pigeons, whereas large-brained birds (crows and parrots), are capable of concept formation.
Analyzing the knowledge appropriation concept put forward by J. P. Gee, the author draws parallels between it and activity structure studies, the play concept and self-appraisal studies pursued in the national psychology.
Koli Calling is a vibrant single-track conference with a program including a keynote address, paper presentations and a poster session. At Koli Calling 2017, Professor Katrina Falkner from the University of Adelaide, Australia, presented a keynote address on the topic What Can We Learn about Teaching from MOOCs? Although the conference had a strong Computational Thinking flavour this year, the paper and poster presentations also covered a variety of topics including teaching and learning programming; program design; affect and emotion expression in CS and while programming; reflection, feedback and assessment; program plagiarism; and visualisation tools.