SPICE модели МОПТ, учитывающие эффекты старения
SPICE models for MOS FETs with account for aging effects are discussed. HCI and NBTI effects were analyzed. Considered are: models built-in commercial simulation tools, models developed by some authors and macromodel developed by the author.
The unified SPICE model for MOS FET on insulating substrate with account for the selfheating effects. transistors interaction and thermal properties of chip construction and mounting is presented. The MOS FET model parameters depend on transistor internal temperature which is calculated using thermal network . Any model of MOS FET can be used. Thermal network parameters depend on chip package construction and cooling conditions.
Numerous studies have found a reduced speed of linguistic processing in older adults, particularly in sentence processing. However, it has been suggested that the reduction of processing speed in older adults is a strategy that they adopt for reasons of caution in order to avoid potential error and/or to conserve "cognitive resources". This hypothesis has been tested in the linguistic domain only once. To test the hypothesis about the strategic nature of slower sentence processing speed in older adults, our experiment address whether they have a greater tendency than younger adults to use a processing speed that is slower than their performance limits. Participants were presented with syntactically complex sentences word-by-word, first in a self-paced mode and then in two externally-paced sessions: (1) at their individual median speed from the self-paced session and (2) twice as fast. After each sentence, participants answered a comprehension question with two response options. We assumed that an external speed increase will cause a greater decrease in response accuracy in younger than older adults, because older adults tend to choose a self-paced sentence processing speed that is further away from their performance limits. However, in the current sample, the hypothesis was not confirmed. Thus, it seems that the slowdown of language processing in older age is a compensatory mechanism, inevitable and necessary to provide the same level of language processing as at a younger age.
The approaches to the understanding of successful and sustainable development of the society are changing before our eyes. The focus shifts from the economic indicators showing the welfare of the state, to measuring of the subjective indicators of happiness that reflect the individual's subjective well-being. The paper analyzes the level of life satisfaction according to age in different societies. The relationship between the degree of development of inclusive institutions and the satisfaction with life is revealed.
Older adults demonstrate a slower speed of linguistic processing, including sentence processing. In non-linguistic cognitive domains such as memory, research suggests that age- related slowing of processing speed may be a strategy adopted in order to avoid potential error and/or to spare “cognitive resources". So far, very few studies have tested whether older adults’ slower processing speed in the linguistic domain has a strategic nature as well. To fill this gap, we tested whether older adults can maintain language processing accuracy when a faster processing speed is enforced externally. Specifically, we compared sentence comprehension accuracy in younger and older adults when sentences were presented at the participant’s median self-paced reading speed versus twice as fast. We hypothesized that an external speed increase will cause a smaller accuracy decline in older than younger adults because older adults tend to adopt self-paced processing speeds “further away” from their performance limits. The hypothesis was not confirmed: the decline in accuracy due to faster presentation did not differ by age group. Thus, we found no evidence for strategic nature of age-related slowing of sentence processing. Based on our experimental design, we suggest that the age-related slowing of sentence processing is caused not only by motor slowdown, but also by a slowdown in cognitive processing.
This paper presents Low-T SPICE models of sub-micron MOSFETs, designed to calculate electronic circuits in the cryogenic temperature range (down to 4 K). The procedure for extracting the Low-T SPICE model parameters based on the measurement results or TCAD simulation of a standard set of I-V and C-V characteristics in the cryogenic temperature range has been developed.
The methodology of modeling and simulation of environmentally induced faults in radiation hardened SOI/SOS CMOS IC’s is presented. It is realized at three levels: CMOS devices – typical analog or digital circuit fragments – complete IC’s. For this purpose, a universal compact SOI/SOS MOSFET model for SPICE simulation software with account for TID, dose rate and single event effects is developed. The model parameters extraction procedure is described in great depth taking into consideration radiation effects and peculiarities of novel radiation-hardened (RH) SOI/SOS MOS structures. Examples of radiation-induced fault simulation in analog and digital SOI/SOS CMOS LSI’s are presented for different types of radiation influence. The simulation results show the difference with experimental data not larger than 10‒20% for all types of radiation.