Когнитивный механизм формирования смысла названий картин А.Н. Юркова/Cognitive mechanism for forming the sense of names of pictures by A.N. Yurkov
The publication speaks about the study reflecting the cognitive mechanisms for the formation of the meaning of the paintings’ name by Nizhny Novgorod artist A.N. Yurkov. The role of the language game in dealing with cognitive
structures participating in the associative thinking is considered.
The author argues the necessity of studying thought as a basic psychological category, describing methodological principles of research, explaining the notion of the object thought, analyzing neurophysiological mechanism of thought processes, hypothesizing the structure of thought and how it is related to information and production of thought.
People with insomnia often perceive their own facial appearance as more tired compared with the appearance of others. Evidence also highlights the eye-region in projecting tiredness cues to perceivers, and tiredness judgements often rely on preferential attention towards this region. Using a novel eye-tracking paradigm, this study examined: (i) whether individuals with insomnia display preferential attention towards the eye-region, relative to nose and mouth regions, whilst observing faces compared with normal-sleepers; and (ii) whether an attentional bias towards the eye-region amongst individuals with insomnia is self-specific or general in nature. Twenty individuals with DSM-5 Insomnia Disorder and 20 normal-sleepers viewed 48 neutral facial photographs (24 of themselves, 24 of other people) for periods of 4000 ms. Eye movements were recorded using eye-tracking, and first fixation onset, first fixation duration and total gaze duration were examined for three interest-regions (eyes, nose, mouth). Significant group × interest-region interactions indicated that, regardless of the face presented, participants with insomnia were quicker to attend to, and spent more time observing, the eye-region relative to the nose and mouth regions compared with normal-sleepers. However, no group × face × interest-region interactions were established. Thus, whilst individuals with insomnia displayed preferential attention towards the eye-region in general, this effect was not accentuated during self-perception. Insomnia appears to be characterized by a general, rather than self-specific, attentional bias towards the eye-region. These findings contribute to our understanding of face perception in insomnia, and provide tentative support for cognitive models of insomnia demonstrating that individuals with insomnia monitor faces in general, with a specific focus around the eye-region, for cues associated with tiredness. © 2016 European Sleep Research Society
Young people’s interest in taking international exams, such as IELTS, results from student mobility and their willingness to appraise language abilities. In this case, irrespective of their professional domains, L2 learners are submitted to Academic Writing Task One that implies comprehending graphic information and processing it in written discourse. The gap between a host of graph description tests and an insignificant number of efficient teaching methods has provided a rationale for the current study. It focuses on graph description as a cognitive, psychological and educational process and employs the analysis method in the theoretical section. The data derived from scientific investigations have revealed the key pillars of successful written graph presentation: the combination of all four main skills, i.e. reading, listening, writing, and speaking; skills transfer; critical thinking and writing; the appropriate use of style; graphic literacy. Based on the action research design method, the study has quested for peculiar language problems detrimental to processing the graph description task. It is concluded that the “constant nudging” method, a skills transfer, the use of appropriate vocabulary for describing trends alongside academic functional phrases and grammar features, the analysis of mass media information with numeric data are solutions to graph description issues.
The aim of this paper is to study manifestations of temperament in auditory evoked potentials (EP) during the odd-ball paradigm. Three questionnaires were used; Pavlovian Temperament Survey (PTS), Structure of Temperament Questionnaire (STQ), Eysenck Personality Inventory (EPI). All subjects were divided into two groups with high (I) and low (II) concordance between the questionnaires’ data. Amplitudes of N2 wave and of N2-P3 complex were found to be statistically different in the two groups. In group I, a number of significant relations between questionnaires' dimensions and EPs parameters were shown; in group II such relations were much less numerous. The data obtained show that temperament is determined by brain processes of perception and attention, and also hint at the existence of individuals with fundamentally different patterns of psychophysiological manifestations of temperament.
The results of the work on preference of hierarchical text menus of user interface are discussed in the article. Detection of influence of hierarchical text menus parameters and cognitive processes indicators of users on preferences in this menu is implemented. On the basis of experimental data logistic regression is constructed. It allows you to classify the menu with preset parameters on a scale of "like / dislike" for these parameters and indicators of memory, attention, logical thinking level of test subject. The percentage of correct classification is 78% of the assessments.