The article considers the problem of reduction of greenhouse gases emissions, one of the main anthropogenic causes of increasing carbon concentration in the atmosphere, and consequently the global climate change. In the second half of the XX century many schemes for involving market mechanism in solving these problems were proposed. These efforts increased in the last decade of XX century and finally the Kyoto Protocol supported many flexible mechanisms, as a solution for these problems. In spite of all these efforts, during the first period of its implementation (2008–2012) the emissions of carbon increased. This issue has been especially pronounced in Russia, one of the main global emitters. The paper explores the mechanisms and projects in Russia, and its importance for reducing the GHG emissions and fulfilling the commitments of Kyoto Protocol and other international documents.