Defining usability problems
Usability evaluation methods rely, either explicitly or implicitly, on a definition of a usability problem to specify an evaluation scope and a usability problem report format. However, the majority of definitions are vague or fail to capture all relevant phenomena in the scope of human-computer interaction. This paper proposes the elaborate definition of a usability problem to address theoretical issues and guide a problem analysis strategy for various evaluation methods.
The starting point of reference in the article is the iconological analysis, as it was formulated by Aby Warburg (1866-1929). In contrast to those, who claim that only one of two selected by A. Warburg aspects of the method – «apollonian» and «dionisian» – was developed, the thesis of the article, based on the material concerned with the questions of history of medicine, published in the «Journal of Warburg and Courtauld Institutes», outlines the stability of the method in its diversity. The emphasizing of two tendencies, following the development of the iconology: one of them was offered by Erwin Panofsky (1892-1968) and was developed in the direction of increasing the proportion of the structuralism theory, the other, the variation of the history of ideas, was focused on the investigation of magic and hermetic practice – confirms the thesis.
The report addresses the methodological challenge of studying judicial reasoning in a Codified Systems of such Western countries as France and Germany in the 19th century and Russia in the late 19th early 20th century. The difference in style of Western European and Russian decision should be explained by taking into account national legal consciousness along with black letter rules of the codes and statutes.
The book is the first in Russian scientific literature analytical study of history of scientific researches of western esotericism. The author makes a hypothesis of existence of four scientific approaches to this phenomenon, describes genesis and characteristic features of each of them and in detail analyzes works of their representatives. The history of Eranos circle is described, the short sketch of ideas of C.G. Jung, M. Eliade, G. Sholem is given, key works of F. Yeats, U. Eco, J. Webb, A. Faivre, W. Hanegraaff, K. von Stuckrad, A. Versluis, J. Kripal, I. P. Culianu is analyzed. The considerable place is allocated for the description of cultural and historical realities in the conditions of which research of western esotericism is developed.
The book first of all is addressed to scholars of religion and historians, but also can be recommended to all who interested in intellectual history and history of religious studies, as well as to a wide range of the readers wishing to understand what "esotericism" and "occultism" means.
As NGOs are emerging into prominent actors in international politics, the issue of measuring their political capability and efficiency draws particular interest. The paper offers a critical overview of core theoretical approaches to evaluating NGOs as politically accountable actors of global civil society.
This is the Proceedings Book of the International Conference on Foreign Language Teaching and Applied Linguistics (FLTAL) held in Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina, May 9-10, 2014. The FLTAL Conference aims to bring together researchers, practitioners, and educators with interests in language teaching and linguistics at all levels from around the world.
The paper provides a review of present-day studies on the problem of pilots’ performance in various flight conditions, with a focus on their methodology. Conceptual frameworks of the studies (concepts of working capacity, functional state and mental workload) are discussed, and different objective and subjective measures and methods used are described. Eye-tracking is regarded with special attention as a promising tool able to examine the internal mechanisms of pilots’ performance. The paper hints to the importance of systemic methodological approach to pilots’ performance assessment and proposes the direction for further research in the field of aviation psychophysiology.
Education by observation: Students in research process The article argues for a new technology in teaching students of state and municipal management. The method is based on direct observation and description of management practices by students who lack any systematic research skills (the «naive observer» method). The authors ague that the use of this method allows to solve two types of problem at once: a pedagogical one and a scientific one. Students observe, and provide a description of, facts of the Russian provincial life without any interpretation whatsoever, which allows to obtain a picture of the social life that is closer to the reality than the one obtained by use of interpretational schemes of sociologists and journalists. It is only the latter picture that is currently used by the authorities as a basis for management decisions and for developing projects of social changes.
In this work the problem of learning and development of creativity with a view to the position of reflexive psychology, akmeology and pedagogics in the context of the human capital analysis in the conditions of modern society globalization is raised. The theme is urgent from the practical point of view in demand of a creative personality under conditions of the economic crisis and at the same time it is actual, because it interprets creativity in a new way according to interdisciplinary approach. The author emphasizes that a reflexively-creative potential is considered to be the backbone factor of professional and innovative activity in modern social space. On basis of philosophical foundations' analysis of psychology of creativity we theoretically build the conceptual model of reflexive creativity and we also examine the precedents of its psychology-pedagogical development in the secondary and high education (in case of reflexive-psycological support).