Эволюция концепта «честь» во французской средневековой картине мира
The article studies the concept of "honor" in the French language consciousness. Analysis has shown that this concept is characterized by the changeof its content. It is noted that the change of features is due to the change of moral and ethical attitudes in medieval society. The author arrives at the conclusion of the development of the concept as a historical and cultural entity.
The article starts with considering theoretical problems of the concept of the Other that points to the out-group in dialogical (co)relation with which the identity of the Self is constructed. This concept describes a fundamental and manifold phenomena that needs to be specified and classified. The author argues that a solution of theoretical issues about the figure of the Other lays in the field of empirical research. In particular, the issue of “significance” of the Other for constituting the Self could be decided only on the basis of systematic study of social practices that essentially rely on (co)relation with particular out-groups. Political rhetoric could be a good field for study of symbolic functions of the Other and factors that determine its significance.
Shared representations of the Other are not only an important element of identity construction but also an instrument of the symbolic politics, i.e. public activity aimed at production and dissemination / intrusion of competing visions of social reality. The article demonstrates how a study of patterns of representation of particular macro political communities allow to assess their relative “significance”. Basing on theoretical insights from the literature the author proposes a research method that includes manual coding of the frames of representation of the Other in the context of legitimization of political course with subsequent counting of their frequency added by discourse analysis of each group of frames. This method is tried on the case of comparative analysis of frames of representation of the American and Chinese Others in the rhetoric of the presidents of the Russian Federation (from 2000 to 2015).
In the contemporary world where social media became one of the key sources of information about offline reality, a rally can be performed without even leaving your house. That is why the discussion participants and the audience reflect on the problem of ‘authenticity' of the virtual reality and political actions it provides. The users ponder the question whether virtual activism is relevant, what conditions make virtual political action ‘real' and ‘accomplished', i.e. they try to define the status of virtual reality and the boundaries between the ‘real' and the ‘virtual', the ‘original idea' (in E. Goffman's words) and the ‘falsifi cation'. This reframing results in a redef inition of what activists, city inhabitants and lawenforcementbodies considerto be a ‘political action'. The article considers how the perceptions of social media activism change and to what conflicts those changes can lead.
The general purpose of the study is to consider private/public interaction within a public place – Anticafe – with the help of Frame Analysis by E. Goffman. The results could advance our understanding of the logic of social construction of space.Tasks: 1) characterizing the practical production of private space within the public space in terms of frame-analysis;2) getting a list of keying for visitors antikafe / open spaces;3) getting a «legend» for each antikafe / open space on the basis of identified "signifying practices";4) comparison the «legend» of antikafe / open space and the observed behavior of visitors.Anticafe is usually described as an «unobstructed place, where people can meet and communicate». It is certainly a public place, however, it provides an opportunity to feel «at home», i.e. latently permits the transformation of the public space into the private one. The lack of understanding of how people use public space and how they draw boundaries between their «private» and «non-private» zones can be an obstacle for designers to create better public places in urban environment.The initial model is based on Frame Analysis by E. Goffman and the theory of the space invention by M. de Certeau. Participant observation and thick description provide a record of behaviors of Anticafe’s visitors. The estimated number of the objects (Anticafes) is three: “Ziferblat na Pokrovke”, “Local Time” and “Lodge”. The duration of observation includes one weekday, Friday and day-off (approximately 5-6 hours per observation) for each object. All the practices and situations were recoded into several frames (“At home”, “On a visit”, “In Café”, “In the Office”) and final results are presented as a list of keying.The research has shown that the monitoring objects, known as formally «equal», in fact turned out to be three different models of social organization of space, which implies different ways to regulate the conduct of individuals. People consciously design a private space within the public through a variety of practices. Varying degree of «privatizing the space» during the interaction allows individuals to solve the conflict of frames.
Media frames have been traditionally extracted via manual content and discourse analysis. Such approach has a limited ability to deal with large text collections and is prone to subjectivity both in terms of text selection and interpretation. We illustrate possibilities and limitations of topic modeling for frame detection applying this method to a collection of 50,000 news items related to the Ukrainian crisis and retrieved from a Russian and a Ukrainian TV channels websites. We conclude that although topic modeling results allow to make assumptions about how topic is framed it is still not as precise as human reading of texts.