The Archives of the two Sapiehas and the two letters by Xenia Godunova
The text is about two letters by princess Xenia Godunova written in one day and taken by Sapieha soldiers but then divided and kept in archives of Sweden and Russia
The siege of Smolensk by king Sigismund in 1609-1011 transferred the center of power in Muscovite State directly to the king’s camp. In Autumn – Winter 1610-lots of representatives of different strata of Muscovite servicemen. That created an unprecedented impulse to great intensive contacts of Muscovites with Polish and Lithuanian cultures.
There was significant number of second row actors in the king’s camp who however had played noticeable role in Novgorod political life in early 17th century. There were Matvey Lvov, one of military officers in Novgorod in 1611-1614, Bogdan Dubrowskijwho brought to Novgorod the message in 1613 that Mikhail Romanov was elected, Murat Peresvetov, gentleman from Rostov deserted to Sweden camp in 1613 near Tikhvin; some Novgorodians of higher level – Andrew Palycin and Lev Plescheev.
«Polish trace» in early 17th century Novgorod is practically unstudied. Episodes of 1610-1612, inconvenient to Romanov’s ideology, did not preserve in most of the official Muscovite sources. Meanwhile one must consider the experience in Smolensk camp in the biographies of Novgorodians while studying the Novgorod society of early 17th century.
The book is about the history of Novgorod the Great during the last period of the Time of Troubles: between the conquer of Novgorod by Jacob De la Gardie on July, 16, 1611 until Stolbovo Treaty 1617. The study is based primarily on the data from the archives of Novgorod City Office. Narrative sources, documents of Foreign Chancellery (RGADA, fond 96), many other acts of the epoch were also used in the study. The main result of the study is complex picture of many traits of Novgorod day-to-day life in early 17th century in the context of civil war and Swedish military occupation. The study is also the result of prosopographical study of more than 4600 carriers (and fates) of Novgorod and Pskov servicemen. The observation of Novgorod Archives in 1611-1617 is placed in the appendix to the book.
The article deal with the issue of relations between Swedish administration (General De la Gardie) and Novgorod society in 1611-1617. The plot of the study is the evolution of the regime – from alliance (1612-1612) to occupation (since late 1614 – 1617).
The article deal with the volume of Novgorod record books of early 17th century hold in Riksarkivet, Stockholm. Two types of record books are revealed. Also the appearance of so called “alive quarter” in early 17th century Novgorod is fixed
The article deals with the newly founded document – a letter from Ivan Saltykov to Polish king Sigismund III from Ladoga fortress shortly taken from the troops of Colonel Delaville. There comes also analysis of letter’s language and characteristic of the historical context of its appearance.
The article concerns the problematic of making prosopographical research on the basis of the data from so called “Novgorod Occupation Archives” – the archives of early 17th century Novgorod Official Court.
The book is a compendium of articles on one general theme: studying aristocracy of Time of Troubles in Moscow Czardom, 1598-1613
1. Early Modern Russian-Lithuanian Borderland is good studied. Its trace is the best investigated one among the borderlines of Muscovia. The case of the Russian–Lithuanian borderline was the basis of important theoretical reconstruction (by M. Krom and also A. Frolov) in the sphere of the appearance of borders as signs of Early Modern states. In the same time the gradually annexation of border Porechje and Schuchje districts by Lithuanians in 1609 was very similar to the processes in Gomel’-Starodub borderland happened a century earlier (been studied by V. Temushev).
2. The Smolensk Chancellery Archives is one of “divided archives” like Novgorod Ockupationsarkivet and Tikhvin arkivet (other two collections from Muscovia gathered in Swedish National Archives). The Smolensk collection like the Novgorod one is the random sampling of local regular day-to-day documentation unknown in the local chancelleries of other Muscovite towns
3. The “Smolensk collection” is the day-to-day acts from the sieged (since august 1609) city but it also includes acts from the time immediately before the siege. The documents on the borderline guarding and border transfer in spring and summer 1609 are under consideration; also the documents of the first weeks after king Sigismund III coming up to Smolensk. The borderline deeds include the correspondence between Smolensk governors and border officers, acts of building the fortifications, also notes from Lithuania. The reports from the border were of syncretic character: local inhabitants immediately complained about violence from the Lithuanian authorities who had supposed them to be spies and informed the Smolensk authorities about Lithuanian troops moving.
4. The clashes on Velizh border started in March 1609 were not an immediate reaction of Lithuanians on the Muscovite-Swedish alliance. The documents described it like a set of border attacks ordinary for 15-17th century borderland. Mutual prosecutions in treachery proclaimed by court peasants, oath to “Velizh pan” made those peasants firstly traitors, then – “Lithuanians”. Not only brothers Gosiewskis but also Muscovite traitors Khripunovs were the initiators of that borderland war.
In 1609 in Smolensk chancellery documents new concepts appeared, characteristic for the Time of Troubles. The concepts “betray”, “deserters” belong to the image of “the own” like “the other” appeared during the Civil war of 17th century: in the discourse of acts, in political and social senses.