Tourism Companies Values Profiles: The Case of Russian Tour Operator
Hospitality and tourism are a rapidly growing global industry. In the past few decades, the hospitality and tourism (hereinafter H&T) industry has made a significant contribution to the global economy. Currently, the H&T direct contribution to the World GDP accounts for 3,1% (WTTC), and direct contribution to employment accounts for 3,5% . The annual number of international tourists is about 1.2 billion (Worldbank). The Russian H&T industry also demonstrates a rapid pace of development, which is accompanied by an increase in competition between the industry players. Competiveness of companies operating in various sectors including the H&T can be improved through management by values (MBV), which supplements or replaces the management by instructions (MBI) and management by objectives (MBO) (Dolan, & Garcia, 2002). The role of values in MBV is to regulate the employees’ conduct, in order to achieve the company's goals. The results of studies which examined the relationship between employees’ personal values, their perception of organizational values and the organization's performance, indicated that the convergence of an employees’ personal values and the organization’s values, is beneficial both for the employee and for the organization (Hoffman, & Woehr, 2006). According to Dolan et. al (2006), values implicitly and explicitly direct the behavior of employees at all levels. The formation of organizational culture with shared values is aimed at "humanizing" a strategic vision, to ensure the survival and development of the organization in order to eventually maximize its profits and satisfy the interests of all stakeholders (Dolan, Garcia, & Richley, 2006). It has been maintained that human resource management is a key success factor in an H&T organization (Baum, 2007; Okumus, 2004). Most research, which examines values as an element of human resource management in the H&T industry, tends to be focused on hotels and restaurants, rather than travel companies. The Russian H&T industry and the internal processes within individual companies remain a new and relatively understudied area of research, and research focused on understanding the values of travel companies which operate in Russia has hardly ever been conducted. It is this gap that this paper intends to attempt to fill. This paper highlights the results of studying the value profiles of a Russian tour operator and its employees, which was conducted in the winter-spring of 2014.