Interpretation of “embarrassment” laughter in narratives by people with aphasia and non-language-impaired speakers
We present an attempt to describe the semantics of “embarrassment” laughter in aphasic and nonlanguage-impaired discourse based on the samples from the Russian CliPS corpus based on its place in discourse.
Abstract. There is currently a great need for modern, standardized neuropsychological tests for language assessment in Russian speakers with aphasia. Our group is working on the development of the Russian Aphasia Test (RAT). Within the scope of this work, two subtests for single-word comprehension of nouns and verbs were developed considering contemporary models of language processing and principles of psychometrics. The task for both subtests was spoken word-to-picture matching. The subtests were normed on individuals with aphasia (n = 45) and a control group (n = 30). This resulted in the final set of 30 diagnostic trials for nouns and verbs matched on relevant psychometric properties which are sensitive to language impairments for both fluent and non-fluent types of aphasia. This set of trials will be included in the final version of the RAT.
Various issues relating to the questions of learner corpus researches and their use in teaching are presented. These include the issue of a norm in corpora whether the norm should necessarily be native and what problems a native norm may present. Learners who behave differently from native speakers do not necessarily use language incorrectly as an alternative to a unique, native norm, a range of norms are available Some of these norms may be problematic if they are not selected carefully (depending on the learner corpus, the purpose of the comparison, etc.) and handled cautiously. Different choices of norms may produce different results and thus lead to different conclusions with respect to learners’ usages. Pedagogical implications of such choices are to be examined, with particular emphasis on whether all differences between the learner corpus and the reference corpus should be targeted for teaching intervention. Problems in evaluating agreement in approaches to annotation practices are considered as well.
There is a need for modern neurolinguisitcstandardized test for language assessment in aphasia and related neurogenic language disorders in Russian. Our research group is currently working on the development of the Russian Aphasia Test (RAT)that is based on contemporary models of language processing and principles of psychometrics.Language production subtests assess oral speech at each of the linguistic levels. The material for each task was selected and balanced considering modern theoretical models of language and takes into account important psycholinguistic factors. For many tasks, there is no standardized analogues in Russian with extensive, theoretically justified and carefully selected linguistic material. The subtests were piloted in a group of neurologically healthy individuals (n=20) and patients with different types of aphasia (n=20). As expected patients with aphasia performed worse compared to age-matched healthy controls across all tasks. Items demonstrating high sensitivity and reliability were selected to be included in the final version of the test.
Aphasia is language impairment due to brain damage. Word-finding and word-retrieval problems can be very prominent in the speech of people with aphasia, being detectable in almost every aphasic speaker. On the other hand, word-finding difficulties and speech errors can sometimes oc-cur in speech of neurologically healthy people. It is assumed that the same psycholinguistic levels of word-retrieval breakdown can account for the mistakes of both groups. In the meanwhile, retrieving of a single word from mental lexicon is not the only possible level of hindrance for a speaker: ref-erential and lexical choices that take place at more general discourse and pragmatic level can also be disturbed. The Russian CLiPS—Russian CLinical Pear Stories—is a corpus of film-elicited narratives retrieved following(Chafe, 1980) methodology from healthy and language-impaired cohorts. The aim of our research was to in-vestigate the characteristics of formal markers of word retrieval difficulties in narratives of neurologically healthy people and people with aphasia. Three types of markers were considered(discourse markers, false starts and self-corrections) in the nominations of common referents of Pear sto-ries narratives. The markers at different breakdown levels are qualitatively analysed, creating a platform for future analysis.
Following the previous workshops on laughter held in Saarbruecken (2007), Berlin (2009), and Dublin (2012), we have the pleasure to welcome you to the 4th Interdisciplinary Workshop on Laughter and Other Non-verbal Vocalisations in Speech in Enschede, the Netherlands on the 14th–15th of April 2015. Non-verbal vocalisations in human-human and human-machine interactions play important roles in displaying social and affective behaviors and in controlling the flow of interaction. Laughter, sighs, filled pauses, and short utterances such as feedback responses are among some of the non-verbal vocalisations that have been studied previously from various research fields. However, much is still unknown about the interplay between phonetic and visual characteristics of non-verbal vocalisations, the relations to the intentions (encoding) and perceived meanings (decoding), and how non-verbal vocalisations can be automatically recognized and generated in human-machine interaction. The goal of this workshop is to bring together scientists from diverse research areas and to provide an exchange forum for interdisciplinary discussions in order to gain a better understanding of laughter and other non-verbal vocalisations. The workshop consists of invited talks and oral presentations of ongoing research and discussion papers. We are very excited that Prof.dr. Anton Nijholt (University of Twente), Prof.dr. Catherine Pelachaud (CNRS, Telecom ParisTech), Dr. Disa Sauter (University of Amsterdam), and Dr. J¨urgen Trouvain (Saarland University), four experts known for their excellent research, have accepted our invitations to speak about their research in relation to laughter. In addition, we have accepted 8 oral and 3 poster submissions. The invited keynote speakers and participants of the workshop have backgrounds in psychology, computer science, human-machine interaction, phonetics, and linguistics which we expect will give rise to lively cross-disciplinary discussions