Генезис представлений о богатстве
In Old Belief there was a new concept of property with orientation to function of providing community. The most important in system of ideas of Old Believers of various soglasiya of property became, that businessmen conservatives, as well as Protestants, were sure: they aren't full and undivided owners. But Russian "God's entrusted on management of property", unlike Protestants, didn't receive a manor directly from the Lord.
In the article is analyzed the use of corruption by the old believers in Russia in the 18 – first part of the 19th century to counteract the repressive tendencies of the state politics towards the old belief, to preserve and strengthen the old believers communities. The author makes a conclusion on the meditative character of such a defensive-corruption system, which was salving the negative sides of the state politics and was ensuring further development of old believers entrepreneurship.
n system of confessional and economic values, institutes and installations a staroveriya synthesis of traditions of an orthodox civilization and post-traditional society was carried out. Mentality of Old Belief owners and economic ethic showed basic possibility of development of society out of the western model of a property perception, historical reality of modernization on the basis of the Russian orthodox values developing in Old Belief and deformed in the Russian society in national scales by transformations of Peter I and his followers.
The collection of articles covers a perspective of history of Russian entrepreneurship. The main subject of articles - factors of formation of ideas of property and business in Russia XVII-XX centuries.
The scientific almanac contains articles on various problems of history of Old Belief. In articles political, economic problems of history of Old belief, and also evolution of culture of Old Belief community are analyzed. The almanac includes historiographic reviews and information on scientific actions.
The edition represents the collection of articles written on the basis of reports at the scientific conference "320 anniversary of the Vygovsky convent and modern problems of Old Belief" which was taking place on November 3-4, 2014 in Daugavpils, Latvia. The collection is devoted to history of the largest center of Old Belief of the first half-fault of the 18th century - Vygovsky convent, and also economic history of Latvian Old Belivers.
The spiritual concept of Business created at the beginning of the 19th century became a kernel of confessional ethics of Old Belief managing. The perception of Cause (Business) as personal Christian feat defined the jealous relation of Old Believers businessmen to it. The success of this Cause in textile production, was impossible without use of the western cars and the invitation, at least, at the beginning, masters from England. And Old Belief manufacturers, promoting strengthening of "true Orthodoxy", actively entered foreign equipment and technology at the enterprises, praying for forgiveness then the of use "sin novelties", consciously made for the sake of the main thing in their life.
The first business interest associations in Russia in 19th c. aroused on Old Belief confessional base and gained high economic effectiveness. Old Believers communities coordinated economic activities of hundreds and thousand the large and small enterprises belonging formally to their members. All three sectors of entrepreneurs, managers and workers formed this mix association. Members of association acted in the industry, trade, but also in agriculture. Top management of such associations was carried out by the largest businessmen making the Council of trustees accountable to a community. Confessional links were used as a network to support goods flow. The whole branches was organized as a common network where businesses of the Old Believers had differentiation in their functions / with some of them purchasing raw materials, others processing them, and still others engaging in retail and wholesale trade. All of the components of this network were under control of the Old Believer merchants of the same denomination. At the initial stage of the industrialization business associations of the Old Believers played an important part in organizational, economic and technical modernization of Russia’s trade and industry sectors.
Modern social sciences view traditionalism as an opposite of innovations and economic growth. In Russia Old Believers was characterized by the deep traditionalism of their rituals and everyday life. The Old Believers, however, in 19th C. turned out to be leaders in technical and economic innovations. How did it coexist with the traditionalism of Old Believer denominations? By developing tendencies of Russian Orthodox society of the 16-17th C. in new social and economic environment and under the influence of prosecutions the Old Believers in the late 17th – early 18th C. created new confessional values. A new type of religiousness and of personality emerged an active worldview and a high level of responsibility. Then, in the state of eschatological stress, the Old Believers sanctified oversufficient labor as edifying and overcame traditional dislike for entrepreneurship and ownership of property. In the early 19th century the concept of Business as Case was formed. For the sake of Business the Old Believers forewent the prohibition on innovation in the organizational and technical sphere while keeping it in place for their everyday lives. The fusion of innovation and tradition called to life the non-etatist modernization of whole sectors of the Russian economy.
The factors of territorial placement of the Old Believe centers in late 18th - to the first half of the 19th century, moved from the periphery to Moscow and Petersburg, the largest commerce and industry enclaves of the European Russia come to light in the article. Under the influence of social cultural tradition and the spiritual concept released from etatism "Moscow – the Third Rome" Moscow became the main confessional center of leading denominations.