The importance of tertiary education for economic growth and competitiveness is increasingly recognized as critical not just for middle-income and advanced countries, but also for low-income ones. Access to a solid, world-class curriculum helps develop a skilled, productive, and flexible labor force that can positively influence productive activities by creating, applying, and spreading new ideas and technologies. Research universities are emerging as the central institutions of the 21st century knowledge economies.
The Road to Academic Excellence: The Making ofWorld-Class Research Universities extends the analysis of the framework presented in The Challenge of EstablishingWorld-Class Universities (Salmi 2009), examining the recent experience of 11 universities in 9 countries that have grappled with the challenges of building successful research institutions in difficult circumstances and presenting the lessons learned from these experiences. This report will be of interest to policy makers and tertiary education leaders considering reforms and innovations to improve their country's position in the global scene.
The article is devoted to a new type of educational programs that are formed at the intersection of higher and secondary education. Education as an institute is seen as an instrument of social stratification of society. The authors analyze the major developments of education as an institute, for instance differentiation between of academic and vocational educational programs and the creation of programs of production a “Homo habilis” — a skilled performer. Changes in the vocational education system are considered in the light of the introduction of the new educational standards FSES 2011 (Federal State Educational Standards).