From Viet-Muong to Viet and Muong: Vietnamese and Muong Languages and Folklore in a Comparative Perspective
In modern Vietnam, the Viet (or the Kinh, the ethnic Vietnamese) and the Muong are considered to be two different peoples, the Viet (Kinh) being the majority and the Muong a minority. In the not so distant past, however, when Vietnam’s population did not see itself in ethnic categories, the only difference between the Viet and Muong ancestors lay in their places of residence – the inhabitants of the capital city and the surrounding plains were named ‘Kinh’ while those who lived in mountain villages were called ‘Muong’. Otherwise, they were the same people, spoke nearly the same language and shared nearly the same traditions. Their commonality is emphasized in the term they are referred to by, i.e. the Viet-Muong. This chapter explores the Vietnamese and Muong languages, dialects, legends, epics and folk songs in a comparative perspective to reveal their similarities, discrepancies, influences and politics. The panelists’ goal is to identify phenomena which are specific for the Viet-Muong community as a whole and those that divide them into two separate groups - the Viet and the Muong.
The efficiency of social reforms in different countries mostly depends on the extent to which they can be accepted by people. Moreover, even if the problems are similar, the reasons may differ, which can lead to fail in applying existing laws of one state to another one. Bribery, as shows the Corruption Perception Index, calculated by Transparency International, is a typical problem for developing countries – that also matches research (Levin & Satarov, 2000; Ilzetzki, 2010) concluding that corruption has roots in socialist regimes and that in recently established political stability instable economic situation leads to growth in crime. The main problem within the scope of this project is to identify the relation between corruption perception and level of trust in the society and to distinguish the differences in factors affecting these characteristics in post-soviet countries. The research discoveres that distrust matters a lot for the problem in Russia and suggests further examining European countries in order to explain the difference in trust.
The paper considers the problems of semantic derivation. The research is based on word-forming paradigms of Adjectives. Special attention is paid to comparative analyses of word-formation models in the Russian and French languages.
The article deals with the causes of modern dualistic view of women in media and mass communication. In the article author analyzes the reasons for the transformation of the female image from the time of the Ancient World to the present day. The author addresses issues of social and cultural influence on the distorted view of the function of women in society. A wide range of test materials (folklore, medieval works, materials of media, etc.) makes it possible to draw conclusions on the continuing bifurcation in Summaries - 274 - the perception of the female image and constant presence of the attributes and patterns of social behavior that differ sharply from each other.
How are professors paid? Can the "best and brightest" be attracted to the academic profession? With universities facing international competition, which countries compensate their academics best, and which ones lag behind? Paying the Professoriate examines these questions and provides key insights and recommendations into the current state of the academic profession worldwide. Paying the Professoriate is the first comparative analysis of global faculty salaries, remuneration, and terms of employment. Offering an in-depth international comparison of academic salaries in twenty-eight countries across public, private, research, and non-research universities, chapter authors shed light on the conditions and expectations that shape the modern academic profession. The top researchers on the academic profession worldwide analyze common themes, trends, and the impact of these matters on academic quality and research productivity. In a world where higher education capacity is a key driver of national innovation and prosperity, and nations seek to fast-track their economic growth through expansion of higher education systems, policy makers and administrators increasingly seek answers about what actions they should be taking. Paying the Professoriate provides a much needed resource, illuminating the key issues and offering recommendations.
One of the most popular statements in the systemic transition literature since the second half of the 1990th is that different experiences of the CEE and Baltic states, on the one hand, and the most of the CIS countries, on the other hand, are embedded in different social norms and values, encouraging efforts in the new EU member states and preventing it in some of CIS countries.
The article features translation problems associated with Russian fairy tale renderings into English and revealed during their comparative analysis. The tales seem to represent fairly complex verbal signs and cultural phenomena whose status borders on cultural symbolism and/or semiotic artifacts. Translator perception patterns driven by the fairy tale message search for its further code-switching appear to be strongly dependent on referencing. Text surface structure is referenced to the wonder-land world of fairy tales as a certain eventful scenario. A cross-language analysis of Russian-English subtexts taken in parallels allows for tracing some text-internal translation tactics.
The educational textbook in an accessible form is given to the representation of such complex issues as the nature of myth and features of mythological mentality. The myth is considered in comparison with some of the genres of folklore (fairy tale, legend) and in connection with the pagan ritual. In the Appendix to the book includes works of the classics of Russian folklore and Ethnography (F.I. Buslaev, A. N. Afanasiev, A. N. Veselovskii, A. A. Potebnia, D. K. Zelenin, V. Ya. Propp, V. N. Toporov, etc.). The book is intended for high school students, who are interested in the problems of Philology, And may be used by them in their own creative work. The book will be interesting for teachers of literature.