The modern system of global governance consists of a number of regimes in different issue-areas: security, finance, trade, investment and many other areas of global competition and cooperation. Despite a seemingly inexhaustible variety of those regimes, all of them may be classified by a finite (and small) number of governance structures. In our research, we defined seven types of governance structures, top–down: from global hierarchical coordinating bodies with powerful enforcement tools to a free international market. International actors based their choice of governance structures on a countable number of factors. Academic researchers working within the framework of transaction cost economics, primarily at the micro-level, investigated these factors.
This chapter seeks to identify the set of factors that played an important role in the choice of current modes of global governance, to trace their recent changes and to elucidate the economic rationale for the apparent or forecasted evolution of those governance structures. We focus our investigation on several global governance regimes—for energy, the environment and trade. Although these areas are transforming as the economic environment shifts, they nevertheless display patterns common to the general evolution of governance structures.
The paper examines the main measures of internal and foreign policies of Argentina and Brazil connected with SDG (sustainable development goals) in energy sector and agriculture. The authors provide the short characteristics of the current trends of foreign policies of both countries and then analyze the case studies of the impact of the concept of sustainable development on the internal policies of Brazil and Argentina. As a conclusion the authors name some outcomes about the correspondence of the agenda of Latin American leading countries to SDGs in the spheres of energy, tourism and agriculture.
The energy sector of Russia is one of the most potent in the world - it is the second in extraction of oil and gas, the third for total output of fuel and energy resources. While exporting nearly 45% of its total production of energy resources, Russia produces more energy per capita than most other countries - 5 times higher the global average and 3 times higher than the average level for OECD countries. The energy sector of Siberia represents the crucial part of the country's energy sector. Over decades, the energy resources of the region massively contributed to the Russian federal budget and brought in a major part of hard currency from export trade. In the current conditions of existing geopolitical challenges and expected global demand for energy resources, it is much more of a priority for Russia not to raise the output of fuel and energy resources but to improve the overall quality and reliability of the whole energy supply system, increase the depth of mineral fuel, including solid fuel and waste recycling.