Арены участия: Россия в европейском контексте
he main problems of the modern institution of civil participation in the implementation of local government in Russia have been analyzed in the article. Modern effective tools and processes, in the context of “civil participation” have been described. A number of issues and problems of formation of the institute of local government has been considered The democratic nature of the local government implies, the principle of transparency of the decisionmaking system at the local level and high level of trust of the population to local governments. Based on the study of processes, taking place in the country, as well as the analysis of scientific literature on civil pariticpation issue, the author highlights the factors, influencing the level of public confidence in the activities of local governments and the decision-making process by actors in the process of interaction between the authorities and society, in terms of ensuring the democratic nature of the local power.The aim of the analysis of the process of building the system of local government, under which social activity and civil participation in the implementation of the local government requires an interdisciplinary approach - to develop effective solutions and technologies of work with citizens, local authorities, that will lead to increased transparency in decision-making and enhance public confidence in the local authorities. In consideration, that developed institute of civil participation is a complex institution, which is an indicator of the democratic principle of organization of power, at the same time requiring a more thorough analysis of the type of relationship the actor process of interaction of authorities and society and their objectives, the author puts forward several theories, whereby you can ensure the effectiveness of the process of “participation”, in the context of mainstreaming, as described by the author.In the same way modern and effective tools and techniques have been described in the article, the application of which, according to the author, will lead to greater transparency in the work of local government authorities.
A phenomenon of the “spring of protest” has generated significant attention of scholars and has been observed and analyzed with various perspectives—ranging from the withdrawal of the state’s capacity for public goods, an interactive and horizontal social-mediated space, the shrinkage of the middle-class indifference, demands for accountability, rampant corruption, etc. This chapter is an attempt to address a methodological problem of understanding the origin, preconditions, structure, and social foundations of significant and lasting street protests that have appeared spontaneously and almost simultaneously in the varied scattered geographical space of South of Asia, Africa, and South of America (collectively the Global South) and comparing them with the protests in Southern Europe. Microanalysis of the resources, networks, and political attitudes that contribute to protests has been studied by different scholars. The protests have a transnational character but are also strongly influenced by local frameworks.
While the cases are different in Southern Europe and the Global South, this chapter argues the overarching similarities about the emergence of the publics as watchdogs. This chapter observes with the timeline of 2011 the unfolding of the protests that gets organized with a meta-narrative coalescing and converging with a centrifugal force connected around the troubled messages. This public demands accountability and participation in the governance process while keeping their protesting platform leadership horizontal, spot-on, circular, and mainly non-stream and through a range of mediated networks thus further consolidating the gains for the unheard multitudes.
The article discusses the opportunities of city dwellers civic participation in the urban decision making. The theoretical background of the article is both L. Thevenot’s pragmatic sociology and Sh. Arstein’s “a ladder of citizen participation”. The empirical base of the study consists of a series of semi-structured interviews with members of garage spots owners in St. Petersburg, involved in urban contestation against enormous garage demolition. The author concludes that the possessors of garage spots resorts to the large range of instruments of urban space contestation in view of legal actions are found unproductive. The strong advocacy groups (city authorities and buildings developers) appeals to norms and lows largely, but also they addresses to the variety of the other instruments for legitimating their actions though. As a result, the interaction among urban activists and city authorities occurs in the level of “therapy”, “informing” and “manipulation”, according to the Arstein’s terminology.
Collection included scientific articles of Russian and German authors covering wide spectrum of topics, connected with citizenship in Russia and European Union member-states. Authors consider issues of social integration and legal status of migrants, civic participation, democratic citizenship culture and civil self-consciousness both in Russia and European Union. This book oriented on scientists, researchers, PhD and MA students in sociological, historical and political sciences.
It is on the basis of modern approaches provided by the new institutional theory that in the present article the institution of civil participation is reappraised as an integral phenomenon securing inclusion of citizens into the political government process. Characterization and analysis of the evolution and of the current state of the institution of civil participation are offered. As is demonstrated by the investigation developed, there are few real public entities, and civil entities are in minority. Nevertheless civil entities, because they possess qualities of a competent political actor, of a self-dependent subject of politics, with welldeveloped social practical skills, are able to form - and in reality do form - a new, not an imitative, but a real institution of civil participation oriented at citizens needs for influencing the process of political decision-making.