Понятие действия в феноменологии этико-морального субъекта П. Рикера
What role does play the notion of action in the Ricoeur’s phenomenology of ethical and moral oneself? How does the ethical oneself become an actor? How does the notion of action help Ricoeur to formulate the phenomenological picture of political entity? The answers on these questions organize the base of this research and refer to such names as Aristotle and Hannah Arendt, who take a significant influence to Ricoeur by his creating the concept of ethical and moral oneself.
The article concentrates on Chicherin, a Russian philosopher and lawyer, and his views on the correlation between liberty, law and morality. The author comments on Chicherin's ideas in the context of other views existing at the turn of the 19th and the 20th centuries. These are the views of such representatives of the Russian socially political, legal and philosophical ideas as Kavelin, Novgorodtsev, Struve, Alekseev and others, including modern researchers. Special reference is maid to Chicherin and Solovyov's polemics, which is important step in the history of Russian philosophy. Pointing out a constant connection between law and morality, that often complement each other on the basis of common values, Chicherin strongly insisted on differentiating between these notions. He was sure that the only way to a moral ideal was freedom, not an outward compulsion. And our past historical experience is the best confirmation of this idea. The work also focuses on the fact that the peculiarity of Russian law philosophy is its concentration on the questions of morality and law, the attempt of becoming closer to a moral ideal.
The problem of free will remains one of the primary unsolved problems of John Sealre’s philosophy. In his book ‘Freedom and Neurobilology’ (2007) Searle proposes two alternative hypothesis that would allow one to make sense of the nature of freedom, but ultimately finds both of them unsatisfactory. In this paper we propose a modified version of Searle’s argument, which attempts to reconcile the common sense intuitions with physiological determinism on the basis of Kahneman’s theory of cognitive systems. Specifically, we focus on the collision between the fast and the slow cognitive system as the basis for the experience of freedom.
This article discusses current approaches to the study of morality as a predictor of individual behavior. Integration of personological and socio- psychological approaches opens new perspectives for considering the relationship between moral judgment and moral action. «Self» is considered as a «point of intersection». «Moral Self» is the center of attention in a number of personological as well as socio — psychological research directions. The total consideration of three factors — cognitive aspects of the morality (representations, values, judgments), the components of Self (moral self-esteem and the place of morality in the structure of Self) and situational infl uences (threat / support of the moral Self) — allows to predict individual behavior.
The present catalogue contains abstracts for some 150 volumes, among which books, periodicals, miscellanies, published by the Institute of Philosophy of the Russian Academy of Sciences, the principal institute in Russia for academic research in all kinds of philosophical knowledge. These works, written by eminent Russian scholars, cover such fi elds as the history of Russian, Western and Oriental philosophy, ethics and aesthetics, synergetics and epistemology, social and political philosophy and concentrate on problems that have attained particular importance in the age of globalization and growth of national self-consciousness.
Angesichts der gegenwärtigen Belastungen in den Sozialsystemen, insbesondere in der Kranken- und Rentenversicherung, wird das Solidarprinzip, auf dem diese Systeme beruhen, in den aktuellen politischen Debatten mehr oder weniger radikal in Frage gestellt. Bei den Diskussionen um die Notwendigkeit des Abbaus bzw. des Erhalts der sozialen Solidarsysteme wird nur selten der systematische Stellenwert des rechtlichen wie ethischen Prinzips der Solidarität mit reflektiert. Die Beiträge des vorliegenden Bandes setzen sich teils mit der historischen Herkunft wie mit dem begrifflichen Bedeutungsspektrum von Solidarität , aber auch mit missbräuchlichen Verwendungen des Wortes auseinander. Teils reflektieren sie den Stellenwert, die begrifflichen Bestandteile und die Begründungsformen des Solidaritätsprinzips im Recht und in der Ethik. Und schließlich behandeln sie die Rolle des Solidaritätsprinzips in der Friedensforschung und in der Debatte um die politische Bedeutung der Kunst.