Углеродоемкость внешней торговли России и ее значение для климатической политики
The main objective of the OECD project was to develop recommendations aimed at improving the use of economic and other instruments of management of water resources for attaining sustainable development of water sector, as well as socio-economic development of the Republic of Buryatia as a whole. The project consisted of three stages that resulted in the development of specific relevant reports included in the series of works performed on the commission of OECD.
Proposed recommendations relate to improvement of water policies while the main aim of the series of project was not the development of detailed methodologies and instructions but rather identification of a general way for policy reforms in the field of water resource management. Such methodological guidelines on introduction and improvement of administrative and economic instruments are propose to be developed at a later stage, after relevant political decuisions on the proposed measures are made.
This article assesses the level of openness of Russian economy. It is shown that the open-ness indicators used in the Concept of Long-term Social and Economic Development of the Russian Federation differ from those employed by international organisations. The present research analyses both the intensity of Russian trade in terms of its gross domestic product and the relative strength of import penetration in Russia. Methodological differences determine the differences in the analysis results.
The article is devoted to the analysis of trends in international trade development in Russia in the period following trade liberalization. Using statistical data analysis changes in scale and the structure of international trade since the first years of economic reforms in Russia are estimated.
We investigate the 2008–2009 trade collapse using microdata from a small open economy, Belgium. Belgian exports and imports mostly fell because of smaller quantities sold and unit prices charged rather than fewer firms, trading partners, and products being involved in trade. Our difference-in-difference results point to a fall in the demand for tradables as the main driver of the collapse. Finance and involvement in global value chains played a minor role. Firm-level exports-to-turnover and imports-to-intermediates ratios reveal a comparable collapse of domestic and cross-border operations. Overall, our results reject a crisis of cross-border trade per se.
This study analyzes the effects of reducing trade barriers in the context of the objectives of competition policy. Separate chapters are devoted to the assessment of the height of Russian trade barriers, the analysis of the impact of international trade on domestic prices and concentration of production.