On how compositionality relates to syntactic prototypes and grammaticalization
Progressive periphrases in German are analyzed in a quantitative and qualitative way. The subject of the analysis is progressive constructions in the XVII–XIX centuries. It is stated that the process of their formation was not homogeneous, as there were two forms of progressive periphrases during the IX–XV centuries that were existing concurrently and were interchanging. It is determined that in any period the most frequent periphrases are im-construction and am-construction, moreover, the frequency of the latter is increasing. It is confi rmed that the process of grammaticalization mostly referred to contraction of locative prepositions and defi nite articles, which lost their lexical meaning in the development of progressive periphrases.
In this work we consider modeling of workflow systems with Petri nets. To increase flexibility and give tools for workflow models re-engineering we extend the formalism of workflow nets by considering systems of interacting nets. Then we study soundness - the main correctness property of workflow processes - and show, that for a special class of structured workflow system soundness can be proved in compositional way.
Nested Petri nets is an extension of Petri net formalism with net tokens for modelling multi-agent distributed systems with complex structure. While having a number of interesting properties, NP-nets have been lacking tool support. In this paper we present the NPNtool toolset for NP-nets which can be used to edit NP-nets models and check liveness in a compositional way. An algorithm to check m-bisimiliarity needed for compositional checking of liveness has been developed. Experimental results of the toolset usage for modelling and checking liveness of classical dinning philosophers problem are provided.
Semantic roles have continued to intrigue the linguists for more than four decades now, starting with determining their kind and number, with their morphological expression, and with their interaction with argument structure and syntax. The focus in this volume is on typological and historical issues. The papers focus on the cross-linguistic identification of semantic-role equivalents, on the regularity of, and exceptions concerning change and grammaticalization in semantic roles, the variation in encoding the roles of direction and experiencer in specific languages, presenting evidence for identifying a new semantic role of speech addressee in Caucasian languages, on semantic roles in word formation, and finally a cross-linguistic comparison of the functions and the grammaticalization of the ethical dative in some Indo-European languages. The book will be of interest to anyone involved with case and semantic roles, with the syntax semantic interface, and with semantic change an grammaticalization.
In Udi (Northeast Caucasian, Lezgic), the prenominal relative clause may be preceded by a genitive phrase referring, at first glance, to some of its arguments. It is proposed that this construction results from a borrowing from Azerbaijani, which, however, underwent reanalysis: the genitive phrase behaves as the possessor of the matrix nominal phrase and the relative clause appears to specify the possessive relation. The Udi data are further compared with data from a few other languages that display similar constructions.
The paper describes Kalmyk complex predicates, based on the empirical data of linguistic fieldwork. The focus of this investigation is on the semantics and morphosyntactic properties of the complex predicates in Kalmyk. In Kalmyk, several auxiliaries (bää‑ ‘to be’, jov‑ ‘to go’, kevt‑ ‘to lie’ and suu‑ ‘to sit’) belong to the imperfective domain. Perfective semantics is the basis for complex predicates with the primary verbs ork‑ ‘to put’ and od‑ ‘to go away’, whereas the verbs av‑ ‘to take’ and ög‑ ‘to give’ express reflexive benefactive and benefactive meanings. The verb xaj‑ ‘to throw’ expresses intensivity and pluractionality. The study shows that the Kalmyk aspectual system arose as a result of grammaticalization.