Младенческая смертность в России в последней трети XIX – начале XX века
The book «Population development and population policy» (series «Population studies») is dedicated to the famous Russian demographer, Dr. Sc. (Economics), MSU emeritus professor A.Y. Kvasha. The authors are colleagues and students of A.Y. Kvasha. The first part includes biography of A.Y. Kvasha, list of his main scientific papers and PhD theses carried out under his supervision. The second part is devoted to reminiscences of his disciples and colleagues. The third part contains articles – their themes are associated with A.Y. Kvasha: demographic analysis and projections, population policy, economic, social and military demography. For researchers, post-doctoral fellows, students and anyone interested in population problems
Based on official statistics, the author tries to address the question of why the infant mortality rate in Russia is significantly higher than might be expected given the measures taken to protect the health of pregnant women and newborns. In the introduction, the author explains the relevance of studying inequality in the level of infant mortality among the population of modern Russia as a factor holding back the positive downward trend.
After presenting the latest history of the evolution of the information and statistical base for population studies on the subjects under review, the author confirms the approach according to which it is advisable to work with data for real generations when analyzing the differentiation of infant mortality and generations born in 2014-2016 are chosen as the object of analysis.
To determine the relevance of individual factors contributing to infant mortality, the author cross-tabulated raw data. Data on such initial characteristics (factors) as the birth order of the child, whether a mother is in a contracted civil marriage or not, mother’s level of education, were grouped by age groups of mothers. The use of cross-tabulation allowed to affirm not only the influence of individual factors on the level of infant mortality but also a quantitative differentiation between them. The article concludes the extent to which the overall level of infant mortality is determined by mortality rates from individual causes of death.
A significant part of the article is presented in the format of author generalization using statistical methods regarding the educational differences of mothers, which have become differentiation factors in infant mortality rates.
The socio-demographic analysis based on official statistics has confirmed not only some hypotheses as to why, despite the relatively rapid decrease in infant mortality in Russia in recent years, its level remains higher than in almost all European countries with reliable demographic statistics, but also to reveal the extent of the inequality of infant mortality in our country.
The author argues that the reason why Russia lags behind many countries with the positive downward infant mortality trend is strongly associated with causes of death from conditions arising in the perinatal period as well as congenital disorders. This suggests that the level of medical care for pregnant women and newborns in Russia is still lower than in developed European countries. It also has to be assumed that different educational groups have unequal access to quality health care. А proactive approach to life as well as a progressive achievement of the right to choose a medical institution and a doctor - is one of the important directions for resolving a whole set of national health care issues.