Субъекты рынка труда современной России: основные проблемы взаимодействия
The article describes the basics of using the category of " social interaction " to the study of social and labor relations . The author of a detailed analysis of the concept of " social interaction ", " labor " and " labor relations ", considering the subjects of these relations. As a result, proposed by the author's definition of social interaction, social and labor relations and subjects of social and labor relations. In the final part of the article describes the features of constructing models subjects of social and labor relations and their interactions.
The notions of crowdsourcing and reputation are compared. It is shown that crowdsourcing may be a significant factor influencing reputation formation of various social players; in strategic perspective it allows to build a new model of social interaction.
This chapter demonstrates that, as online games develop and grow in complexity, the "social" in these games, i.e. all types of interactions based on regularities of human communication, evolves as well. Multiplayer online games fulfil many functions in providing the "role distance" of players, enabling them to learn new social roles, alleviate the alienation of their everyday work, reflect on routine social situations, and practice the "naive" performance of game roles. The evolution of the social in massively multiplayer onlie role-playing games reveals in two trends: 1) variety of the "social" increases, thus including more abstract types and overcoming the anthropomorphic body, and 2) the freedom of interaction and dialogue grows wider, enabling players to contribute to shaping the story line of the game.
The research considers general philosophical and applied approaches to the analysis of social interaction, defines the mechanisms of social interaction, as well as the methods of managing them. The influence of mechanisms of social interaction on the organization of joint activity is analyzed.
This monograph may be of interest to specialists engaged in research of social interaction, to manager-practitioners who apply the mechanisms of social interaction in professional activity, as well as to all those who are interested in the sociology of management and organization, human resources management.
The neurobiological basis and temporal dynamics of communicative language processing pose important yet unresolved questions. It has previously been suggested that comprehension of the communicative function of an utterance, i.e. the so-called speech act, is supported by an ensemble of neural networks, comprising lexico-semantic, action and mirror neuron as well as theory of mind circuits, all activated in concert. It has also been demonstrated that recognition of the speech act type occurs extremely rapidly. These findings however, were obtained in experiments with insufficient spatio-temporal resolution, thus possibly concealing important facets of the neural dynamics of the speech act comprehension process. Here, we used magnetoencephalography to investigate the comprehension of Naming and Request actions performed with utterances controlled for physical features, psycholinguistic properties and the probability of occurrence in variable contexts. The results show that different communicative actions are underpinned by a dynamic neural network, which differentiates between speech act types very early after the speech act onset. Within 50-90 ms, Requests engaged mirror-neuron action-comprehension systems in sensorimotor cortex, possibly for processing action knowledge and intentions. Still, within the first 200 ms of stimulus onset (100-150 ms), Naming activated brain areas involved in referential semantic retrieval. Subsequently (200-300 ms), theory of mind and mentalising circuits were activated in medial prefrontal and temporo-parietal areas, possibly indexing processing of intentions and assumptions of both communication partners. This cascade of stages of processing information about actions and intentions, referential semantics, and theory of mind may underlie dynamic and interactive speech act comprehension.
Although language is a tool for communication, most research in the neuroscience of language has focused on studying words and sentences, while little is known about the brain mechanisms of speech acts, or communicative functions, for which words and sentences are used as tools. Here the neural processing of two types of speech acts, Naming and Requesting, was addressed using the time-resolved event-related potential (ERP) technique. The brain responses for Naming and Request diverged as early as ~120 ms after the onset of the critical words, at the same time as, or even before, the earliest brain manifestations of semantic word properties could be detected. Request-evoked potentials were generally larger in amplitude than those for Naming. The use of identical words in closely matched settings for both speech acts rules out explanation of the difference in terms of phonological, lexical, semantic properties, or word expectancy. The cortical sources underlying the ERP enhancement for Requests were found in the fronto-central cortex, consistent with the activation of action knowledge, as well as in the right temporo-parietal junction (TPJ), possibly reflecting additional implications of speech acts for social interaction and theory of mind. These results provide the first evidence for surprisingly early access to pragmatic and social interactive knowledge, which possibly occurs in parallel with other types of linguistic processing, and thus supports the near-simultaneous access to different subtypes of psycholinguistic information.