Contemporary argumentation theorists claim that argumentation has interactive, social, dynamic and dialogical nature and reflect social constructivist perspective. Yet, there are multiple approaches to promoting a most effective learning approach and instruction. How can students learn to construct strong arguments and distinguish between facts and opinions?
There are three educational approaches for developing argument skills: oral, written and web-based discussions. Research results reveal that expended engagement in argumentative discourse improves the quality of arguments even if there is no instruction provided.
In our book we take a mixed approach to teaching which is based on experiential learning and direct instruction. Direct instruction provides students with requirements for their writing while the experiential approach emphasizes their engagement and practice.
For Russian students, engaging in a “two-sided” argument (versus "one-sided") seems to be challenging. A two-sided argument addresses the opposing argument, rather than simply arguing for one's own position. It is crucial that Russian students learn to engage in evidence-based argumentation where they provide a claim and support it by evidence or reasons in a certain way.
Another challenge is that English instructors may also have difficulty in explaining how to make arguments and how evidence can be applied in reading and writing. Many teachers seem to be unprepared to provide instructional support for learning argumentation skills.
Development of cognitive competence requires acknowledging the academic and disciplinary discourses. Russian students often struggle to attend to opponent's claims and stay focused on their own claims. They also fail to identify any weaknesses in the opponent’s arguments. However, when proper instruction is available students are able to apply arguments.
There are various approaches to defining argument structure. Some researchers highlight a claim supported by grounds, warrants and backing. Others suggest argument-counterargument integration for defining an argument schema and suggest strategies to construct an integrative argument: refutation, constructing a design claim and weighing.
Whatever approach is chosen, one learning goal is for teachers and for students to become aware of the existing strategies and decide why they follow it. This is part of the goal of metacognitive development. It is also important to incorporate reflective activities into learning as they help to ensure that reasoning skills become internalized.
In addition to gaining awareness of the strategies and reflection, a learner should gain a deeper understanding of the content and persuading others with their arguments. Students should learn generate arguments that incorporate multiple perspectives of an issue. Our book employs reflective activities as a primary pedagogical tool for the improving argument and reasoning skills.
Our book is in line with the experiential learning which we see as the process of learning when students’ knowledge is based on their experience. “Knowledge results from the combination of grasping and transforming experience" (Kolb, 1984, p. 41 in Kolb, et al., 2000). The learning process is structured in four stages including first experience (preliminary questions in each section), reflective observation (theoretical excerpts and sample writings), abstract conceptualization (end-of-the-section questions) and active experimentation (thinking, speaking, writing activities).
In our book we also scaffold argumentative written discourse and break up learning activities into different aspects. There are such techniques as working in collaborative pairs, reflective activities, dialogues and discussions.
The development of metacognition is based on extended reading activities and speaking. It will help ensure students become reflective about their reasoning and evidence. Apart from having students develop stronger arguments, we invite them to engage more with the opposing position which isn't necessarily false.
We do believe that mastering critical writing skills help students become better critical thinkers.
The volume is to contain the proceedings of the 13th conference AGCT as well as the proceedings of the conference Geocrypt. The conferences focus on various aspects of arithmetic and algebraic geometry, number theory, coding theory and cryptography. The main topics discussed at conferences include the theory of curves over finite fields, theory of abelian varieties both over global and finite fields, theory of zeta-functions and L-functions, asymptotic problems in number theory and algebraic geometry, algorithmic aspects of the theory of curves and abelian varieties, the theory of error-correcting coding and particularly that of algebro-geometric codes, cryptographic issues related to algebraic curves and abelian varieties.
Among all variety of socio-political transformations in the former Soviet Union the case of Armenia should be allocated especially. The hardest situation caused by the whole complex of the factors which are especially sharply shown after collapse of the USSR made the country vulnerable before external and internal threats and led to formation of the specific political system compelled to balance in the unstable region.
Armenian Christianity Today examines contemporary religious life and the social, political, and cultural functions of religion in the post-Soviet Republic of Armenia and in the Armenian Diaspora worldwide. Scholars from a range of countries and disciplines explore current trends and everyday religiosity, particularly within the Armenian Apostolic Church (AAC), and amongst Armenian Catholics, Protestants and vernacular religions. Themes examined include: Armenian grass-roots religiosity; the changing forms of regular worship and devotion; various types of congregational life; and the dynamics of social composition of both the clergy and lay believers. Exploring through the lens of Armenia, this book considers wider implications of â€˜postsecularâ€™ trends in the role of global religion.
Harmony and Counterpoint in J. F. Herbart’s Psychology and Aesthetics
The realist J. F. Herbart (1776‐1841), an original follower of Kant and chief opponent of German Idealism, was particularly concerned with music in his life as well as in his philosophy. Der musikalische Herbart is the conceptual reconstruction of his theoretical reflection, involving metaphysics, psychology, and aesthetics: it is by his multidisciplinary, relational approach that Herbart contributes his original philosophy of music. In contrast to Kant, he defends the possibility of scientific psychology, which he establishes upon metaphysics, mathematics, and experience. Herbart investigates tone relations applying psychological laws and mechanisms: intervals, chords, melody, consonance, dissonance, and even equal temperament are analysed as psychological products and explained through the notions of the tone line (a kind of musical a priori) and “musical thinking”. At the same time, musical thinking can be seen as a principle of aesthetical legality, since Herbart’s account of tone relations forms the core of his rigorously formalistic aesthetics of music. His concept of music finally proves to be pivotal for later tone psychology. Review: Maier, M. (2008). Die Musikforschung, 2, 164–165
A ROADMAP FOR U.S.-RUSSIA RELATIONS
This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Artificial Intelligence: Methodology, Systems, and Applications, AIMSA 2014, held in Varna, Bulgaria in September 2014. The 14 revised full papers and 9 short papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from 53 submissions. The range of topics is almost equally broad, from traditional areas such as computer vision and natural language processing to emerging areas such as mining the behavior of Web-based communities.
This case was prepared by Professor Natalia S. Karpova from the Mendeleyev University in Moscow, Director, Institute for International Business, University - Higher School of Economics, Moscow, since 2007, Prof. Derek F. Abell from IMD, Professor Emeritus ESMT, Berlin, as a basis for class discussion rather than to illustrate either effective or ineffective handling of an administrative situation.
Copyright © 2010 by IMD - International Institute for Management Development, Lausanne, Switzerland. Not to be used or reproduced without written permission directly from IMD.
This book suggests that normative ethics should be developed as a social science, and that this will improve its reputation in business and society. Storchevoy defines four criteria of a good scientific method (clear definitions, correct logic, empirical verification, accurate measurement) and demonstrates how normative ethics can make use of them. He provides a historical review of the methodological evolution of normative ethics and outlines how it was moving in a nonlinear way towards this scientific development by the 16th century. A Scientific Approach to Ethics challenges the reputation of ethics among many within business and business schools as unscientific and argues that it can come to be seen as a scientific discipline able to reveal universal moral truth.
Aspects of Academic Writing is primarily designed to lead university students to success with academic writing and prepare for further study and world of work. The students are trained to organize, present and compare data, describe process, present and justify an opinion, evaluate and challenge ideas, compare and contrast evidence. The book is either focused on developing students’ academic writing skills; develops the students’ active vocabulary by practicing systems of vocabulary, such as word formation, collocation, phrasal verbs and dependent prepositions; revises and extends the students’ active knowledge of grammar through varied activities, offering opportunities for recycling, revision, evaluation and self-evaluation. Throughout the book there are examples to follow and exercises to complete, so students can easily select the particular section to practice based on their specific needs. In all, the book can be used in the classroom by teachers of English for Academic Purposes as part of a wider course. However, the book may be either used as self-study.
This book gathers in one volume all the information needed to use ADePT Edu, the software platform created by the World Bank for the reporting and analysis of education indicators and education inequality. It includes a primer on education data availability, an operating manual for the software, a technical explanation of all the education indicators generated, and an overview of global education inequality using ADePT Edu.
Since its publication in 1843, La Russie en 1839 by Custine has lent itself to contradictory interpretations. Illuminating its historical context, this edition reveals what the author owed to his predecessors and signals the details of Russian life which he saw or guessed as well as those he badly understood or even transformed. The edition is richly commented by Vera Milchina and Alexander Ospovat (see: Notes, pp. 899-1124.