One hundred years after the deportations and mass murder of Armenians, Greeks, Assyrians, and other peoples in the final years of the Ottoman Empire, the history of the Armenian genocide is a victim of historical distortion, state-sponsored falsification, and deep divisions between Armenians and Turks. Working together for the first time, Turkish, Armenian, and other scholars present here a compelling reconstruction of what happened and why. This volume gathers the most up-to-date scholarship on Armenian genocide, looking at how the event has been written about in Western and Turkish historiographies; what was happening on the eve of the catastrophe; portraits of the perpetrators; detailed accounts of the massacres; how the event has been perceived in both local and international contexts, including World War I; and reflections on the broader implications of what happened then. The result is a comprehensive work that moves beyond nationalist master narratives and offers a more complete understanding of this tragic event.
This pioneering volume explores the Arctic as an important and highly endangered archive of knowledge about natural as well as human history of the anthropocene.
Focusing on the Arctic as an archive means to investigate it not only as a place of human history and memory – of Arctic exploring, ›conquering‹ and colonizing –, but to take into account also the specific environmental conditions of the circumpolar region: ice and permafrost. These have allowed a huge natural archive to emerge, offering rich sources for natural scientists and historians alike.
Examining the debate on the notion of (›natural‹) archive, the cultural semantics and historicity of the meaning of concepts like ›warm‹, ›cold‹, ›freezing‹ and ›melting‹ as well as various works of literature, art and science on Arctic topics, this volume brings together literary scholars, historians of knowledge and philosophy, art historians, media theorists and archivologists.
Arctic territory today is the most perspective territory for oil and gas companies. It is not only resource based or in other words, Arctic boarding countries that should engage in arctic exploration as it requires completely new technological advancement, calling for intense attention to its field development. Following the USGC research developed in 2008 year, more than 80% of perspective Arctic territories are located in offshore. This fact inevitably conveys technical and legislative risks which are not experienced onshore or conventional offshore fields. Technical risks are associated with severe climate conditions, sensitive ecological situation and a lack of field development experience on these territories. Legislative risks depend on the arctic country in question. Legislative also include taxation system that directly affects the efficiency of field development. All this makes it actual to study technical and legislative risks associated with arctic offshore field development. Practically, the work consists of two parts: analysis of influence of technical risks and legislative risks (including taxation system) on field development in different Arctic Seas and two cases in Russian Barents Sea and Norwegian Barents Sea were studied. Analysis of technical and legislative risks in these countries are determined by similar conditions of state participation and strategic meaning of Arctic territories for both countries. In the frame of technical analysis risk classification system according to different Arctic Sea conditions was worked out. Probability for each technical risk was assessed in expert way and included in the field development project evaluation, which in turn was made using real option valuation and stochastic modeling approaches. In order to receive synergetic effect, valuation model of filed development with technical risks were then incorporated into economic model, which includes legislative restriction and taxation. These conditions differ according to territory in Russia which is the opposite in Norway, allowing us to create territories with similar climatic conditions and geological perspective, analyzing technical and legislative risks.
A Review of Deviant Nonprofit Groups: Seeking Method in their - Alleged ‘Madness-Treason Immorality’
In the context of global efforts to move towards universal coverage in health systems, this report reviews health financing reforms in the Republic of Moldova and looks in particular at how the population´s access to health services has been affected. In 2004, as has been widely documented elsewhere, wholesale reforms were made to the way in which government funds were used to fund health services, shifting the system overnight from a highly fragmented and inflexible one, to one in which funds for the health sector were pooled nationally, allowing improved risk-sharing as a result of greater flexibility to allocate funds in line with health needs. A new source of funding in the form of a payroll tax for health was also introduced directly leading to a growth in total levels of government health spending. A second phase of reforms starting in 2009 addressed the issue of gaps in population coverage under mandatory health insurance, with legislative measures taken to ensure that all citizens of Moldova had access to primary health care, and to ensure that the poor receive subsidized health insurance. Fiscal constraints have limited the full implementation of these reforms however. Moldova has shown that it is prepared to tackle difficult policy issues head on and has articulated clear goals for the sector. In particular, the Roadmap “Accelerating Reforms: addressing the needs of the health area through investment policies” approved on 1 March 2012, lays a clear agenda for the next phase or priority reforms focusing on principally on service delivery reorganization but also on health financing. This is the correct focus given that progress on a number of priority indicators such as equity in access to services and financial protection has been limited in recent years. This report summarizes the main impact of health financing reforms to date and agrees with the Roadmap about the major challenges for the coming decade, in particular the need to address inefficiencies in service delivery, but also to ensure that the close link between guaranteed benefits and available funding is maintained in future policy decisions.
Contemporary argumentation theorists claim that argumentation has interactive, social, dynamic and dialogical nature and reflect social constructivist perspective. Yet, there are multiple approaches to promoting a most effective learning approach and instruction. How can students learn to construct strong arguments and distinguish between facts and opinions?
There are three educational approaches for developing argument skills: oral, written and web-based discussions. Research results reveal that expended engagement in argumentative discourse improves the quality of arguments even if there is no instruction provided.
In our book we take a mixed approach to teaching which is based on experiential learning and direct instruction. Direct instruction provides students with requirements for their writing while the experiential approach emphasizes their engagement and practice.
For Russian students, engaging in a “two-sided” argument (versus "one-sided") seems to be challenging. A two-sided argument addresses the opposing argument, rather than simply arguing for one's own position. It is crucial that Russian students learn to engage in evidence-based argumentation where they provide a claim and support it by evidence or reasons in a certain way.
Another challenge is that English instructors may also have difficulty in explaining how to make arguments and how evidence can be applied in reading and writing. Many teachers seem to be unprepared to provide instructional support for learning argumentation skills.
Development of cognitive competence requires acknowledging the academic and disciplinary discourses. Russian students often struggle to attend to opponent's claims and stay focused on their own claims. They also fail to identify any weaknesses in the opponent’s arguments. However, when proper instruction is available students are able to apply arguments.
There are various approaches to defining argument structure. Some researchers highlight a claim supported by grounds, warrants and backing. Others suggest argument-counterargument integration for defining an argument schema and suggest strategies to construct an integrative argument: refutation, constructing a design claim and weighing.
Whatever approach is chosen, one learning goal is for teachers and for students to become aware of the existing strategies and decide why they follow it. This is part of the goal of metacognitive development. It is also important to incorporate reflective activities into learning as they help to ensure that reasoning skills become internalized.
In addition to gaining awareness of the strategies and reflection, a learner should gain a deeper understanding of the content and persuading others with their arguments. Students should learn generate arguments that incorporate multiple perspectives of an issue. Our book employs reflective activities as a primary pedagogical tool for the improving argument and reasoning skills.
Our book is in line with the experiential learning which we see as the process of learning when students’ knowledge is based on their experience. “Knowledge results from the combination of grasping and transforming experience" (Kolb, 1984, p. 41 in Kolb, et al., 2000). The learning process is structured in four stages including first experience (preliminary questions in each section), reflective observation (theoretical excerpts and sample writings), abstract conceptualization (end-of-the-section questions) and active experimentation (thinking, speaking, writing activities).
In our book we also scaffold argumentative written discourse and break up learning activities into different aspects. There are such techniques as working in collaborative pairs, reflective activities, dialogues and discussions.
The development of metacognition is based on extended reading activities and speaking. It will help ensure students become reflective about their reasoning and evidence. Apart from having students develop stronger arguments, we invite them to engage more with the opposing position which isn't necessarily false.
We do believe that mastering critical writing skills help students become better critical thinkers.
The volume is to contain the proceedings of the 13th conference AGCT as well as the proceedings of the conference Geocrypt. The conferences focus on various aspects of arithmetic and algebraic geometry, number theory, coding theory and cryptography. The main topics discussed at conferences include the theory of curves over finite fields, theory of abelian varieties both over global and finite fields, theory of zeta-functions and L-functions, asymptotic problems in number theory and algebraic geometry, algorithmic aspects of the theory of curves and abelian varieties, the theory of error-correcting coding and particularly that of algebro-geometric codes, cryptographic issues related to algebraic curves and abelian varieties.
Among all variety of socio-political transformations in the former Soviet Union the case of Armenia should be allocated especially. The hardest situation caused by the whole complex of the factors which are especially sharply shown after collapse of the USSR made the country vulnerable before external and internal threats and led to formation of the specific political system compelled to balance in the unstable region.
Armenian Christianity Today examines contemporary religious life and the social, political, and cultural functions of religion in the post-Soviet Republic of Armenia and in the Armenian Diaspora worldwide. Scholars from a range of countries and disciplines explore current trends and everyday religiosity, particularly within the Armenian Apostolic Church (AAC), and amongst Armenian Catholics, Protestants and vernacular religions. Themes examined include: Armenian grass-roots religiosity; the changing forms of regular worship and devotion; various types of congregational life; and the dynamics of social composition of both the clergy and lay believers. Exploring through the lens of Armenia, this book considers wider implications of â€˜postsecularâ€™ trends in the role of global religion.
Harmony and Counterpoint in J. F. Herbart’s Psychology and Aesthetics
The realist J. F. Herbart (1776‐1841), an original follower of Kant and chief opponent of German Idealism, was particularly concerned with music in his life as well as in his philosophy. Der musikalische Herbart is the conceptual reconstruction of his theoretical reflection, involving metaphysics, psychology, and aesthetics: it is by his multidisciplinary, relational approach that Herbart contributes his original philosophy of music. In contrast to Kant, he defends the possibility of scientific psychology, which he establishes upon metaphysics, mathematics, and experience. Herbart investigates tone relations applying psychological laws and mechanisms: intervals, chords, melody, consonance, dissonance, and even equal temperament are analysed as psychological products and explained through the notions of the tone line (a kind of musical a priori) and “musical thinking”. At the same time, musical thinking can be seen as a principle of aesthetical legality, since Herbart’s account of tone relations forms the core of his rigorously formalistic aesthetics of music. His concept of music finally proves to be pivotal for later tone psychology. Review: Maier, M. (2008). Die Musikforschung, 2, 164–165
A ROADMAP FOR U.S.-RUSSIA RELATIONS
This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Artificial Intelligence: Methodology, Systems, and Applications, AIMSA 2014, held in Varna, Bulgaria in September 2014. The 14 revised full papers and 9 short papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from 53 submissions. The range of topics is almost equally broad, from traditional areas such as computer vision and natural language processing to emerging areas such as mining the behavior of Web-based communities.
This case was prepared by Professor Natalia S. Karpova from the Mendeleyev University in Moscow, Director, Institute for International Business, University - Higher School of Economics, Moscow, since 2007, Prof. Derek F. Abell from IMD, Professor Emeritus ESMT, Berlin, as a basis for class discussion rather than to illustrate either effective or ineffective handling of an administrative situation.
Copyright © 2010 by IMD - International Institute for Management Development, Lausanne, Switzerland. Not to be used or reproduced without written permission directly from IMD.