The present article aims to analyze the degree of modern business ethics practices like corporate social responsibility and corporate governance in Russian enterprises.
This book presents the main findings of a study on school learning environments and student outcomes, which the World Bank conducted in 2019 in three regions of the Russian Federation. Using data collected through the OECD School User Survey and the pilot “Trends in Mathematics and Science Study” (TIMSS), the book analyzes how a school’s infrastructure and learning environment may affect the progress and success of students in math and science. It also delves into teaching practices, analyzing their impact on learning and highlighting the important nexus between learning environments and teaching methods. The book concludes by recommending areas in which focused attention by educational authorities could improve educational policy and help maintain high-quality learning environments. The book will be useful for educators, school principals, architects, and policy makers who are involved in school infrastructure projects and are interested in increasing their knowledge of school design planning.
This book has been created to facilitate advanced students' reading and speaking competences in the sphere of business English. The articles selected from open access business sources center around 15 most frequently discussed in business English classrooms topics, such as Alliances, Banking, Investment, etc. The exercises are designed to teach and practice all types of reading comprehension. The follow up exercises aim to develop writing and speaking skills. The book can be used to prepare students for BEC Vantage and BEC HIgher.
The main aim of the book is, naturally, to give students the fundamental notions and instruments in linear algebra. Linearity is the main assumption used in all fieldsof science. It gives a first approximation to any problem under study and is widely used in economics and other social sciences. One may wonder why we decided to write a book in linear algebra despite the fact that there are many excellent books such as [10, 11, 19, 27, 34]? Our reasons can be summarized as follows. First, we try to fit the course to the needs of the students in economics and the students in mathematics and informatics who would like to get more knowledge in economics. Second, we constructed all expositions in the book in such a way to help economics students to learn mathematics and the proof making in mathematics in a convenient and simple manner. Third, since the hours given to this course in economics departments are rather limited, we propose a slightly different way of teaching this course. Namely, we do not try to give all proofs of all theorems presented in the course. Those theorems which are not proved are illustrated via figures and examples, and we illustrated all notions appealing to geometric intuition. Those theorems which are proved are proved in a most accurate way as it is done for the students in mathematics. The main notions are always supported with economic examples. The book provides many exercises referring to pure mathematics and economics. The book consists of eleven chapters and five appendices. Chapter 1 contains the introduction to the course and basic concepts of vector and scalar. Chapter 2 introduces the notions of vectors and matrices, and discusses some core economic examples used throughout the book. Here we begin with the notion of scalar product of two vectors, define matrices and their ranks, consider elementary operations over matrices. Chapter 3 deals with special important matrices – square matrices and their determinants. Chapter 4 introduces inverse matrices. In Chap. 5 we analyze the systems of linear equations, give methods how to solve these systems. Chapter ends with the discussion of homogeneous equations. Chapter 6 discusses more general type of algebraic objects – linear spaces. Here the notion of linear independence of vectors is introduced, which is very important from economic point of view for it defines how diverse is the obtained information. We consider here the isomorphism of linear spaces and the notion of subspace. Chapter 7 deals with important case of linear spaces – the Euclidean ones. We consider the notion of orthogonal bases and use it to construct the idea of projection and, particularly, the least square method widely used in social sciences. In Chapter 8 we consider linear transformations, and all related notions such as an image and kernel of transformation. We also consider linear transformations with respect to different bases. Chapter 9 discusses eigenvalues and eigenvectors. Here we consider self-adjoint transformations, orthogonal transformations, quadratic forms and their geometric representation. Chapter 10 applies the concepts developed before to the linear production model in economics. To this end we use, particularly, Perron–Frobenius Theorem. Chapter 11 deals with the notion of convexity, and so-called separation theorems. We use this instrument to analyse the linear programming problem. We observe during the years of our teaching experience that induction argument creates some difficulties among students. So, we explain this argument in Appendix A. In Appendix B we discuss how to evaluate the determinants. In Appendix C we give a brief introduction to complex numbers, which are important for better understanding the eigenvalues of linear operators. In Appendix D we consider the notion of the pseudoinverse, or generalized inverse matrix, widely used in different economic applications. Each chapter endswith the number of problemswhich allowbetter understanding the issues considered. In Appendix E the answers and hints to solutions to the problems from previous chapters and appendices are given.
The Paris Climate Agreement established a new target of combating global warming "well below 2 degrees Celsius". This goal will lead to the transformation and deep decarbonization of world economy aiming at nearly zero carbon emissions soon after 2050. The Northeastern Asian countries (responsible for 40% of global CO2 emissions) have all rechnological, resource and ivnestment potential for decarbonization both domestically and internationally, and can show leadership in this efforts on global scale.
Today's world is crowded with international laws and institutions that govern the global economy. This post-World War II accumulation of hard multilateral and soft plurilateral institutions by no means constitutes a comprehensive, coherent and effective system of global economic governance. As intensifying globalization thrusts many longstanding domestic issues onto the international stage, there is a growing need to create at the global level the more comprehensive, coherent and effective governance system that citizens have long taken for granted at home.
This book offers the first comprehensive look at this critical question of international relations. It examines how, and how well, the multilateral organizations and the G8 are dealing with the central challenges facing the contemporary international community, how they have worked well and poorly together, and how they can work together more effectively to provide badly needed public goods. It is an ideal reference guide for anyone interested in institutions of global governance.
The environment of entrepreneurial activity is numerous and heterogeneous. It includes a large number of components, which have a different extent, nature and frequency of impact on the organization. The question of assessment methodology of the entrepreneurial activity strategic risk factors is sufficiently important. The aim of this study is to develop an assessment methodology model of the strategic risk factors of entrepreneurial activity with the application of a scenario-based approach to identify dependencies of the risk factors using statistical data for 10 years. By strategic risk factors are understood changes in the external common business environment. The following methods were used in this study: a) questionnaire of entrepreneurs and managers of small and medium enterprises, the Central Bank staff and scientists on the subject of selection of indicators characterizing the external business environment; b) correlation analysis; c) regression analysis; d) Delphi approach; e) scenario analysis methods. As a result of the conducted study the main factors influencing the entrepreneurial activity to the fullest degree were identified. Furthermore, a working hypothesis concerning the fact, that increase of standalone strategic risk factors not always exerts negative influence on the entrepreneurial activity was confirmed. The proposed tools of risk factors assessment and their influence on the entrepreneurial activity may be used both for assessment of the organization environment and for assessment of various risk situations aimed at further use of the obtained information when making decisions.
Whether professional or amateur, sports businesses must develop their brand and image to meet the expectations of a diverse environment, consisting of fans, sponsors, and other stakeholders. The value and instruments of market research can provide the required resources for sports businesses to realize their plans. In Market Research in the Sports Industry, Jasenko Ljubica and Neven Seric provide a comprehensive elaboration of market research methods to be used by sports businesses. The book identifies and explains the most effective uses of market research, drawing upon real-life case studies. The application of the methods presented in this book, ranging from the simplest - monitoring the environment to the most complex sampling methods, can significantly contribute to the development of sports businesses by increasing the number of members, sponsors, followers and fans. The book will be invaluable for researchers, educators and students of Sports Management and Marketing, and it will also prove useful to sporting professionals seeking to gain a competitive edge in the market.
This monograph aspires to lay the foundations of a new scientific discipline, demoeconomics, representing the synthesis of demography and spatial economics. This synthesis is performed in terms of interaction between population and its economic activity. The monograph appears a unique research work having no analogs in scientific literature. Demoeconomic systems are studied involving the macrosystems approach which combines the generalized entropy maximization principle and the local equilibria principle. Demoeconomic systems operate in an uncertain environment; thus and so, the monograph develops the methodology and technique of probabilistic modeling and forecasting of their evolution.
Global warming is recognized as one of the most urgent challenges for human society in the 21st century. The international community has agreed to undertake necessary actions to prevent dangerous anthropogenic impacts on the climatic system. Based on the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (2014), the UNFCCC Parties adopted the Paris Agreement aimed at limiting the global mean surface temperature rise by “well below 2 degrees Celsius”. Such an ambitious “climatic” target requires unprecedented efforts to reduce carbon emissions to almost zero worldwide this century. Moreover, in order to keep the warming below 1.5°C, the global total emissions must be reduced by 50% or more by 2050 (compared to current levels) and reach net-zero levels afterwards. In practical terms, it means that most of the countries should deeply decarbonize their economies, energy systems, industries, transport, buildings, products and services, while continuing growth of GDP and the standard of living of the population. The developed countries agreed to take the lead in climate change mitigation under the UNFCCC; however, the largest developing countries and emerging economies have started playing substantial roles in carbon emissions nowadays. In this decade, China became the world No.1 CO2 emitter overcoming the United States. The Northeast Asian (NEA) region, including China, Japan, Mongolia, the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, the Republic of Korea, and the Russian Federation, is responsible for annual emissions of over 12.4 billion tonnes of CO2 or approximately 40% of global energy-related CO2 emissions. These countries are huge contributors to global warming today and may increase their share further. The traditional way of combusting the huge fossil fuels reserves (coal, gas, and oil) available in the Northeast Asian region would emit greenhouse gases substantially exceeding the amounts that would warm the planet by 2°C. On the other hand, plentiful sources of renewable energy (solar, wind, hydro, tidal, and biomass, etc.) in combination with advanced technologies, investments, and land infrastructure developments can transform the Northeast Asian countries into decarbonized, climate- and environment-friendly economies with sustainable growth and development, fully consistent with the goals and commitments under the Paris Climate Agreement. Delays with the deep decarbonization of the Northeast Asian economies will impose higher risks for communities and life-supporting ecosystems, more losses and stranded assets for businesses, and slower technological progress worldwide. The analysis of challenges and opportunities in deep decarbonization pathways for the Northeast Asian region as a whole is presented in this publication. We raise many questions, and yet have not so many answers. By publishing this text, we want to invite all interested and concerned parties to start thinking about and debating these new, but very up-to-date issues of deep transformation of our economies, industries, consumer behavior, and ways of living in climate-neutral patterns, in order that we can urgently meet the need to save our planet and keep it in good shape for the generations to come.
The book focuses on the original classification of models and methods applied in logistics; analyses and summarizes approaches used in procurement, production and distribution logistics; provides either improved or newly developed models and methods solutions: intermediaries choice, ABC-XYZ analysis, EOQ, multi-item and multicomponent deliveries, determines working and safety stock as well as models and algorithms of transport and warehousing logistics. etc.
The work was implemented as part of the Federal Dedicated Programme “Fostering Scientific and Academic Staff for Innovative Russia” for 2009-2013.
This volume offers profound analyses of the main theoretical and practical aspects of the concept of sustainable development: namely, current environmental problems; the building of green economies; climate policies; specifics of international cooperation in the sphere of sustainable development; specific features of business and government involvement in implementing sustainable development; the role of civil society; its social and gender aspects; and specific characteristics of national models of sustainable development. The focus on the international aspects of the implementation of sustainable development ideas makes the insights offered here fresh and unique.
The purpose of this book is to acquaint the reader with the developments in bilinear systems theory and its applications. Bilinear systems can be used to represent a wide range of physical, chemical, biological, and social systems, as well as manufacturing processes, which cannot be effectively modeled under the assumption of linearity. This book provides a unified approach for the identification and control of nonlinear complex objects that can be transformed into bilinear systems, with a focus on the control of open physical processes functioning in a non-equilibrium mode. A wide class of non-linear control systems can be approximated using novel algorithms motivated by bilinear models. The goal of this book is to describe new methods, heuristics, and optimality criteria with less demanding computational complexity than exact criteria that result in robust adaptive algorithms. Emphasis is placed on three primary disciplines influencing bilinear systems theory: modern differential geometry, control of dynamical systems, and optimization theory.
It is well known that Russia is heavily dependent on its energy sector, from both an economic and a political perspective. As a result, the fall in the oil price over the past two years and the dramatic changes taking place in the global gas market are having significant consequences for both the Kremlin and Russia’s domestic energy companies. However, instead of reviewing the increased risks for Russia from the change in global energy markets, this edition of the Oxford Energy Forum discusses how Russia has started to adapt its policies and commercial strategies in a number of different areas. Some of the new strategies appear very positive, while others carry inherent risks, but all show how the world’s largest producer of hydrocarbons is being forced to respond politically and commercially to the shock of lower commodity prices.
The Deep Decarbonization Pathways Project (DDPP) is a collaborative initiative to understand and show how individual countries can transition to a low-carbon economy and how the world can meet the internationally agreed target of limiting the increase in global mean surface temperature to less than 2 degrees Celsius (°C). Achieving the 2°C limit will require that global net emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) approach zero by the second half of the century. This will require a profound transformation of energy systems by mid-century through steep declines in carbon intensity in all sectors of the economy, a transition we call “deep decarbonization.” Successfully transitioning to a low-carbon economy will require unprecedented global cooperation, including a global cooperative effort to accelerate the development and diffusion of some key low carbon technologies.