The present manual is written on the basis of the course on inductive logic which is delivered in English to philosophy students of National Research University Higher School of Economics. The manual describes the main approaches to constructing inductive logic; it clarifies its key notions and rules, and it formulates its major problems. This introductory text can be useful for all readers who are interested in contemporary inductive logic.
«Historiens français et russes divergent sur la campagne de Russie.
Les généraux du Tsar se sont-ils retirés volontairement pour attirer Napoléon au cœur de la Russie et l’anéantir ou ont-ils tout simplement craint d’affronter la Grande Armée, reculant l’échéance aux limites du possible, c’est-à-dire aux portes de Moscou ? Peut-on parler d’une victoire française à la Moskowa ou d’un succès russe à Borodino, étant entendu qu’il s’agit de la même bataille ? Qui a incendié Moscou ? Lors de la retraite« le général hiver » fut-il plus efficace que la« petite guerre » menée par les cosaques ? Peut-on parler de la Bérézina comme d’un désastre ? Après la défaite de 1812 la chute de Napoléon était-elle inévitable ?
Le bicentenaire de 2012 a permis aux historiens français de s’exprimer… Place au point de vue russe avec le professeur Droban.
[…]L’historiographie française a été moins sensible que la russe au mythe de la guerre patriotique : le peuple se soulevant contre l’envahisseur. Sur ce sujet le professeur Droban apporte beaucoup de documents inédits.
Et il a encore raison de noter que Napoléon ne sut pas préparer sa retraite. C’est l’une de ses faiblesses que l’on retrouvera à Leipzig un an plus tard.
[…]Les conséquences de l’année 1812 ne se sont pas arrêtées à la défaite de Napoléon. C’est le mérite de ce beau livre que de le montrer », extraits de la préface de Jean TULARD, de l’Institut
The global economic and political landscape is undergoing profound changes as the world enters a period of rapid transformation development strategies or adjusting their existing ones with greater prominence given to the role of innovation in the leading and underpinning development to strengthen their strategic arrangements for innovation⁃driven development, in a bid to improve their international competitiveness and seize the initiative in global competition Science, technology and innovation (STI) are recognized as the golden key to the door to growth In this trend of the times, the BRICS countries are spearheading the development of developing countries and attracting international attention with their highly innovative and distinctive development strategies Meanwhile, the BRICS as a bloc has become an exemplar of STI cooperation of developing countries.
As the rotating chair of BRICS in 2017, China will host the 9th BRICS Summit in Xiamen in September In the lead⁃up to the summit, the Ministry of Science and Technology of China (MOST) hosted the 5th BRICS Science, Technology and Innovation Ministerial Meeting in Hangzhou in July, where BRICS STI ministers had in⁃depth discussions and reached wide consensus on topics including STI policy, cooperation in priority areas, and co-funding for multilateral research projects The BRICS Action Plan for Innovation Cooperation and the Hangzhou Declaration
To support the work relating to BRICS STI cooperation under the Chinese presidency, China Science and Technology Exchange Center (CSTEC), as entrusted by MOST, established a High Level Expert Group of leading professionals The High⁃level Expert Group complied theBRICS Innovative Competitiveness Report 2017, in collaboration with the science and technology sections of Chinese embassies in other BRICS countries and STI think tanks in other BRICS countries Based on the latest available data, the Report of the BRICS STI cooperation, and presents country and thematic studies on the STI development of BRICS countries.
The Report consists of four parts, with a total of 12 sub⁃reports Part I two general sub⁃reports: an analysis report which evaluates and forecasts the national innovation competitiveness of BRICS countries and their STI cooperation and strategic priorities; and a research report on the priority areas BRICS STI cooperation for win⁃win results This part evaluates the comprehensive national innovative competitiveness of the BRICS countries since 2001 and forecast their innovative competitiveness in the next five years It also assesses the current status and progress of China's STI cooperation with other BRICS countries, and identifies priority areas of BRICS STI cooperation, support for BRICS countries to strengthen their national innovation competitiveness Part Ⅱ presents six country reports, which evaluate, analyze and forecast of the national innovation competitiveness of the BRICS countries and studies of their STI cooperation within the BRICS framework Part Ⅲ presents four thematic reports, which focus on the four thematic areas to STI, including digital economy, inclusive finance, energy, and agriculture, elaborate the STI development and potential of the individual BRICS countries in those areas, and provide valuable inputs for the BRICS countries' national innovation competitiveness Part IV contains appendixes, including an introduction to the related indicator system BRICS STI cooperation.
This book, which contains articles both in German and English, analyses images of and reflections on Africa in Russia, Poland and Germany in the 20th century.
The special issue explores the manifold relations between history, memory, and anthropological research. Explicitly or not, history has always been a particular reference for anthropological research. First of all, anthropologists most often deal with the past not only when attempting to reconstruct past events and conditions, but rather to look at social change, innovation, and transformation, enabling then to position their findings in larger theoretical perspectives. Moreover, many anthropologists are primarily interested in the ways in which people perceive societal changes, experience and represent them and relate them to their various world-views at large. In these endeavors, the notion of history itself became the center of debate, which shifted the attention of many scholars away from an absolute or etic frame of reference to primarily an emic understanding of its meaning with regard to local issues and life-worlds. Thus, the interaction between History and Anthropology was not simple in the past and is not so today. Whatever the particular interest or approach to history for anthropologists may be, history is therefore not just a neutral domain. From a social-constructivist perspective, history is a part of a distinct local cultural and symbolic universe and represents the result of social processes of selection, remembrance and oblivion. The ‘memory boom’ in anthropology triggered many studies in Africanist scholarship as well, for example, on the way in which historical memories were used by both protagonists of colonialism and national-liberation movements; or as a means of state propaganda by postcolonial regimes.
This book aims to identify promising future developmental opportunities and applications for Tech Mining. Specifically, the enclosed contributions will pursue three converging themes:The increasing availability of electronic text data resources relating to Science, Technology & Innovation (ST&I) The multiple methods that are able to treat this data effectively and incorporate means to tap into human expertise and interests Translating those analyses to provide useful intelligence on likely future developments of particular emerging S&T targets.
Tech Mining can be defined as text analyses of ST&I information resources to generate Competitive Technical Intelligence (CTI). It combines bibliometrics and advanced text analytic, drawing on specialized knowledge pertaining to ST&I. Tech Mining may also be viewed as a special form of “Big Data” analytics because it searches on a target emerging technology (or key organization) of interest in global databases. One then downloads, typically, thousands of field-structured text records (usually abstracts), and analyses those for useful CTI. Forecasting Innovation Pathways (FIP) is a methodology drawing on Tech Mining plus additional steps to elicit stakeholder and expert knowledge to link recent ST&I activity to likely future development. A decade ago, we demeaned Management of Technology (MOT) as somewhat selfsatisfied and ignorant. Most technology managers relied overwhelmingly on casual human judgment, largely oblivious of the potential of empirical analyses to inform R&D management and science policy. CTI, Tech Mining, and FIP are changing that.
The book contains articles studying public policies in the State of Hidalgo, Mexico.
This book constitutes the proceedings of the 38th International Conference on Application and Theory of Petri Nets and Concurrency, PETRI NETS 2017, held in Zaragoza, Spain, in June 2017. Petri Nets 2017 is co-located with the Application of Concurrency to System Design Conference, ACSD 2017.
The 16 papers, 9 theory papers, 4 application papers, and 3 tool papers, with 1 short abstract and 3 extended abstracts of invited talks presented together in this volume were carefully reviewed and selected from 33 submissions. The focus of the conference is on following topics: Simulation of Colored Petri Nets, Petri Net Tools.- Model Checking, Liveness and Opacity, Stochastic Petri Nets, Specific Net Classes, and Petri Nets for Pathways.
One hundred years after the deportations and mass murder of Armenians, Greeks, Assyrians, and other peoples in the final years of the Ottoman Empire, the history of the Armenian genocide is a victim of historical distortion, state-sponsored falsification, and deep divisions between Armenians and Turks. Working together for the first time, Turkish, Armenian, and other scholars present here a compelling reconstruction of what happened and why. This volume gathers the most up-to-date scholarship on Armenian genocide, looking at how the event has been written about in Western and Turkish historiographies; what was happening on the eve of the catastrophe; portraits of the perpetrators; detailed accounts of the massacres; how the event has been perceived in both local and international contexts, including World War I; and reflections on the broader implications of what happened then. The result is a comprehensive work that moves beyond nationalist master narratives and offers a more complete understanding of this tragic event.
The site Menekşe Çatağı, located on the north-west shore of the Sea of Marmara, 12 km north-east of Tekirdağ, was excavated between 1993 and 2007. The collection of transport amphorae from the destruction layer consists of interred and fragmented vessels produced in the main ancient wine-trading centres of the Aegean and the Propontis, such as Chios, Thasos, Mende and Lesbos. The chronological boundaries for the collection are the end of the 6th–second half of the 5th century BC. Of special note is a group of stamped amphorae produced in an unknown centre. According to various scholars, this type were produced in Samos, Miletus or Erythrae.
Arctic territory today is the most perspective territory for oil and gas companies. It is not only resource based or in other words, Arctic boarding countries that should engage in arctic exploration as it requires completely new technological advancement, calling for intense attention to its field development. Following the USGC research developed in 2008 year, more than 80% of perspective Arctic territories are located in offshore. This fact inevitably conveys technical and legislative risks which are not experienced onshore or conventional offshore fields. Technical risks are associated with severe climate conditions, sensitive ecological situation and a lack of field development experience on these territories. Legislative risks depend on the arctic country in question. Legislative also include taxation system that directly affects the efficiency of field development. All this makes it actual to study technical and legislative risks associated with arctic offshore field development. Practically, the work consists of two parts: analysis of influence of technical risks and legislative risks (including taxation system) on field development in different Arctic Seas and two cases in Russian Barents Sea and Norwegian Barents Sea were studied. Analysis of technical and legislative risks in these countries are determined by similar conditions of state participation and strategic meaning of Arctic territories for both countries. In the frame of technical analysis risk classification system according to different Arctic Sea conditions was worked out. Probability for each technical risk was assessed in expert way and included in the field development project evaluation, which in turn was made using real option valuation and stochastic modeling approaches. In order to receive synergetic effect, valuation model of filed development with technical risks were then incorporated into economic model, which includes legislative restriction and taxation. These conditions differ according to territory in Russia which is the opposite in Norway, allowing us to create territories with similar climatic conditions and geological perspective, analyzing technical and legislative risks.
A Review of Deviant Nonprofit Groups: Seeking Method in their - Alleged ‘Madness-Treason Immorality’
In the context of global efforts to move towards universal coverage in health systems, this report reviews health financing reforms in the Republic of Moldova and looks in particular at how the population´s access to health services has been affected. In 2004, as has been widely documented elsewhere, wholesale reforms were made to the way in which government funds were used to fund health services, shifting the system overnight from a highly fragmented and inflexible one, to one in which funds for the health sector were pooled nationally, allowing improved risk-sharing as a result of greater flexibility to allocate funds in line with health needs. A new source of funding in the form of a payroll tax for health was also introduced directly leading to a growth in total levels of government health spending. A second phase of reforms starting in 2009 addressed the issue of gaps in population coverage under mandatory health insurance, with legislative measures taken to ensure that all citizens of Moldova had access to primary health care, and to ensure that the poor receive subsidized health insurance. Fiscal constraints have limited the full implementation of these reforms however. Moldova has shown that it is prepared to tackle difficult policy issues head on and has articulated clear goals for the sector. In particular, the Roadmap “Accelerating Reforms: addressing the needs of the health area through investment policies” approved on 1 March 2012, lays a clear agenda for the next phase or priority reforms focusing on principally on service delivery reorganization but also on health financing. This is the correct focus given that progress on a number of priority indicators such as equity in access to services and financial protection has been limited in recent years. This report summarizes the main impact of health financing reforms to date and agrees with the Roadmap about the major challenges for the coming decade, in particular the need to address inefficiencies in service delivery, but also to ensure that the close link between guaranteed benefits and available funding is maintained in future policy decisions.