The book analyzes the results of many years of national sociological research characterizing the attitude of Russians in General and their various social groups to the results of twenty-five years of post-Soviet transformations. At the same time, the author highlights the gains and losses of the country's population over the years of reforms, considers the objective and subjective well-being and disadvantage of Russian citizens, the dynamics of their ideological and political preferences. Special attention is paid to the socio-cultural changes that have occurred during the years of reforms, the formation of Russian identity and the role of religion and religious organizations in society. The analysis of everyday life of Russians living in megacities and provinces, the life world of rural residents is given. The influence of the historical past of the country on the mass assessment of Russian transformations is considered. For sociologists, political scientists, philosophers, economists, historians, psychologists, lawyers, as well as students and postgraduates of the relevant specialties, employees of legislative and Executive authorities.