The collection Genre in Oriental Literature contains papers by reseacrh fellows of a number of educational and academic institutions of Moscow, under the general supervision of the Institute of World Literature, RAS, and discusses the very important and urgent problem of genre attribution of various works of Oriental literature in correlation with the standard concept of genre accepted in European philology. The book’s contributors strive to find both similarities and differences in varying reasons for distinguishing and demarcating genres in the Orient and in Europe, to grasp the diverse approaches to distinguishing genres practiced by representatives of individual Oriental traditions and by European researchers.
The collection opens with an essay by A. S. Balakovskaya (Institute of World Literature Russian Academy of Sciences), “From Encomium to Biography: The Genre Traits of Hagiographic Works in Honor of John Chrysostom (the 5th–10th centuries),” which, on the basis of copious data, presents literary process in its historical development. To be exact, the paper traces the development of the hagiographic genre from the Funeral Speech by Martyrius of Antioch to the Dialogue by Palladius (intended for the “life” of Pseudo-George) in a form making it easy for the reader to visualize the entire evolution of the genre clearly.
In her “The Literary Mind and the Carving of Dragons (Wen xin diao long) by Liu Xie,” L. V. Stezhenskaya (Institute for Oriental and Classical Studies of National Research University “Higher School of Economics”, Institute of Far Eastern Studies) analyzes the literary-historical work of an early medieval theoretician, critic and literary historian from the standpoint of understanding the notion of “genre.” She has also undertaken an attempt to describe, in the form of a survey, the views of Russian Sinologists on the problem of genre in classical Chinese literature.
The Japanese genre otogi-zoshi, which belongs to the Muromachi period (1336–1573) and tends to be interpreted rather loosely as regards its genre attribution as it includes a motley variety of works of both “high” and “low” genres, is the subject of research by M. V. Toropygina (Institute оf Oriental Studies Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute for Oriental and Classical Studies of National Research University “Higher School of Economics”).
The traditional poetic genre, which is the most popular one in Japan, is the subject of E. M. Dyakonova’s (Institute of World Literature Rassian Academy of Sciences) contribution, “The Genesis and the Principal Features of the Japanese haiku Genre.” The unusual nature of its origin lies in its lineage: it developed in the 15th century from the classical five-line 31-syllable tanka (“short poem”) genre under the influence of yet another genre, renga (“collaborative poetry”).
“On the History of haiku in Latin America” by M. F. Nadyarnykh (Institute of World Literature Russian Academy of Sciences) is a work complementary to the preceding article by E. M. Dyakonova, since it treats the problem of transferring and “cultivating” an “alien” Oriental genre on the Latin Americal soil.
In her paper “On Some Rhetorical Genres in Modern Japan,” L.M. Yermakova (Kobe City University of Foreign Studies, Ritsumeikan University) considers some original fluctuations of old genres (the norito prayers) and the emergence of entirely new genres in the 20th-century Japan.
The two articles by E. N. Afanasyeva (Institute of World Literature Russian Academy of Sciences) discuss the forming and functioning of the epic sepha genre in Thailand and the history of the genre of didactic novella nithan in Laos.
“The Genre of ‘Learned Treatise’ in Classical Persian Prose: Formulationg the Problem” is an article by N. Yu. Chalisova (Institute for Oriental and Classical Studies of National Research University “Higher School of Economics”). It deals with medieval Persian works composed in New and Classical Persian in Iran after the coming of Islam and interpreting diverse “sciences.”
In her “Autobiographical Narrative in Classical Persian Literature,” E. L. Nikitenko (Institute for Oriental and Classical Studies of National Research University “Higher School of Economics”) writes about works composed in Arabic and Persian in the “story-about-myself” genre (the 16th century) and about the emergence of biography from poetical genres.
The monograph describes the genre of readers' letters to Russian newspapers, and various approaches to description of genres are discussed with reference to it.
As a material, letters were taken in four representative publications were taken (in the Soviet - Pravda and Izvestia and in the emigrant - "Latest News" and "Revival"). All the letters under investigation date back to the 1920-1929 period. Since at that time both the Soviet society and the emigrant community were still very young, it can be said that it was the 1920s when the two different communicative spaces, and hence the two types of discourse, are formed. Analysis of letters to newspapers allows, among other things, to observe the formation and internal organization of emigrant and Soviet discourse practices.
The main goal of this study is to describe the genre of readers' letters to the editorial board in emigrant and Soviet newspapers of the 1920s, the system of its varieties (sub-genres) and the means (compositional and linguistic) used by writers for creating texts of various sub-genres. Another aim of the study is to identify similarities and differences in the set of subgenres, their thematic, compositional and linguistic properties in the emigration and in Russia.
The monograph has the following structure:
Chapter I examines the main approaches to problems of speech genres in the works of Russian and foreign researchers. Here, the approach adopted in the work for description of speech genres are formulated and criteria for defining a speech genre are proposed, taking into account the specifics of this study. Finally, in the same chapter, studies of the epistolary genre in general and the genre of letters to newspapers in particular are briefly reviewed.
Chapter II focuses on the description of the general properties of the genre "letter to the newspaper." It consists of two parts. In the first part, using the system of parameters proposed in the situational approach to the speech genre, the communicative situation in which this genre operates is characterized. The analysis of a typical communicative situation allows us to proceed to the description of the features that form the genre of a letter to a newspaper, which is the subject of the second part of the chapter. I consider only those features that do not vary depending on the specific type of typical intention purpose of individual letters, that is, the properties that constitute the genre "letter to a newspaper" as a whole. In particular, the key properties of the author and the addressee are described.
Chapter III presents a classification of letters to subgenres. For each subgenre, I describe the typical intention, the prototypical composition and the content, and its linguistic embodiment is analyzed. In addition, where it is relevant for the description of the sub-genre, separate information about the author and the addressee is given. Response letters (letters that represent a reaction to a certain «text-stimulus», for example, another letter to the editorial office or some other newspaper publication) occupy a special place among the types of letters. In the sections focusing on response letters, I consider the types of references to the motivating text and make some remarks on the functioning of other author’s speech in these letters (in particular, possible mechanisms of its distortion are discussed).
The work contains two appendices in which the corpus of letters (about 500 letters) is represented. Letters in the corpus are organized by genre. For convenience, the body is accompanied by two indices – one organized chronologically, the other according to the genre. In all letters, author
spelling and punctuation are preserved. It is important to note that this corpus of letters will be highly relevant demand for other studies (linguistic and not only) related to letters to newspapers in the emigration and in the USSR, because it introduces a new extensive material for future research.
A guide to the book of memoirs by Irina Odoevtseva "On the banks of the Neva"
This is the original publication of the Greek text of the Vita of Basil the Younger from the Athos manuscript of Dionysiou monastery of 1328 "en regard" with the Old Russian text of the oldest Slavic translation from the manuscript in Egorov collection (Moscow0? together with the ampe introduction and commentaries, pertaining both to the realm of Old Russian language and Byzantine history.
The book analyzes in detail the "Messenger of Europe", which was in the 1800s-early 1810s the largest and most influential periodical in Russia, in which many later canonical forms of journalism were established for the first time. The magazine's position reflected the worldview of the raznochintsy-enlighteners, which explains the magazine's constant polemics with the most significant and influential figures of contemporary Russian literature, that had a distinctly elitist character. The magazine reveals the origins of the aesthetic tradition, which was partly perceived later by leftist literary critics. The work also contains a number of factual clarifications (attributions, demonstration of some new documents).
In 1937, the Soviet Union mounted a national celebration commemorating the centenary of poet Alexander Pushkin’s death. Though already a beloved national literary figure, the scale and feverish pitch of the Pushkin festival was unprecedented. Greetings, Pushkin! presents the first in-depth study of this historic event and follows its manifestations in art, literature, popular culture, education, and politics, while also examining its philosophical underpinnings. Jonathan Brooks Platt looks deeply into the motivations behind the Soviet glorification of a long-dead poet—seemingly at odds with the October revolution’s radical break with the past. He views the Pushkin celebration as a conjunction of two opposing approaches to time and modernity: monumentalism and eschatology. Monumentalism—in pointing to specific moments and individuals as the origin point for cultural narratives, and eschatology—which glorifies ruptures in the chain of art or thought, and the destruction of canons. In the midst of the Great Purge, the Pushkin jubilee was a critical element in the drive toward a nationalist discourse that attempted to unify and subsume the disparate elements of the Soviet Union, supporting the move to “socialism in one country”.
The present volume introduces the proceedings of the conference «Z. K. Kasyanenko – Teacher and Mongolist» (devoted to her 90th birthday) which was held on September 30 – October 1, 2015 in the Institute of Oriental Manuscripts Russian Academy of Sciences (St. Petersburg, Russia)
"Records on Investigating Spirits" ("Jishen lu") is a short story collection compiled by the famous Chinese writer and calligrapher Xu Xuan (917–992).
This edition includes the first complete commented translation of the book into a European language and a study of its history and composition. The research covers the collection's religious and mythological elements reflecting the author's interest in supernatural (demonic) entities and phenomena.
The publication is intended for historians of literature and religion and a wide range of readers.