Was ist das für eine Lust an der Lektüre, um derentwillen der Literaturliebhaber immer wieder zur Literatur greift? Worin bestünde für den Leser die Attraktivität der Literatur, wenn nicht eben darin, dass sie alle seine menschlichen Vermögen in Anspruch nimmt die sinnlichen genauso wie die intellektuellen, die ethischen und die ästhetischen? Ausgerechnet die klassische Wirkungsästhetik, die doch eigentlich den Leser aus seinem Schattendasein heraus- und in die Literaturtheorie hatte einführen wollen, handelt von dem Wirkungspotential des literarischen Textes, und nicht davon, wie der Leser mit allen seinen Vermögen auf dieses Wirkungspotential anspricht. In Absehung von und zugleich in Berücksichtigung der Wirkungsästhetik konkretisiert Iris Bäcker die Rede vom Leser in kulturhistorischer und literaturdidaktischer Perspektive.
Harmony and Counterpoint in J. F. Herbart’s Psychology and Aesthetics
The realist J. F. Herbart (1776‐1841), an original follower of Kant and chief opponent of German Idealism, was particularly concerned with music in his life as well as in his philosophy. Der musikalische Herbart is the conceptual reconstruction of his theoretical reflection, involving metaphysics, psychology, and aesthetics: it is by his multidisciplinary, relational approach that Herbart contributes his original philosophy of music. In contrast to Kant, he defends the possibility of scientific psychology, which he establishes upon metaphysics, mathematics, and experience. Herbart investigates tone relations applying psychological laws and mechanisms: intervals, chords, melody, consonance, dissonance, and even equal temperament are analysed as psychological products and explained through the notions of the tone line (a kind of musical a priori) and “musical thinking”. At the same time, musical thinking can be seen as a principle of aesthetical legality, since Herbart’s account of tone relations forms the core of his rigorously formalistic aesthetics of music. His concept of music finally proves to be pivotal for later tone psychology. Review: Maier, M. (2008). Die Musikforschung, 2, 164–165
The western opening of Russia under Peter I and Catherine II, the formation of modern state in the German territorial states and their further development in the era of enlightened absolutism, Russia’s rise to great power and the emergence of the European “pentarchy”, diverse dynastic connections and cultural influences, the revolutionization of Europe by Napoleon and the defense of Napoleonic imperialism – it is a multifarious history in which German-Russian relations and contexts are integrated in the “long 18th century”. This volume illustrates these connections in 35 joint contributions by German and Russian historians. Short factual representations, supplemented by documents and images, shed light on the development of German-Russian interactions. The volume continues the three-part work “Germany-Russia: Stations of Common History, Places of Commemoration”, of which the volume on the 20th century was published earlier, and the next one – on the 19th century – will follow soon.
Учебное пособие «Deutschland sehen» для студентов вузов по учебной дисциплине «Практический курс немецкого языка» может использоваться в качестве дополнения к учебникам уровней с В1 по С1. Пособие состоит из четырех частей: «Города Германии», «ФРГ с 50-х годов до нашего времени», «Образование и профессии», «Экономика и коммуникация» и включает задания к видеосюжетам из рубрики «Изучаем немецкий» германского канала «Deutsche Welle», Каждая разработка к видеосюжету включает в себя словарь для самостоятельной работы или работы на уроке, задания на активизацию новых лексических единиц, на глобальное и детальное понимание прослушанной информации, на формирование навыков устной и письменной речи, а также дискуссионные и проектные задания. Задания к видео могут выполняться как в аудитории, так и в рамках внеаудиторной работы студентов, В конце пособия приводятся ключи и расшифровки звуковых дорожек для самоконтроля.
The book is intended for undergraduate and graduate students of the Higher School of Economics. Its main objective is developing academic skills, namely enriching students’ academic vocabulary, which is an integral part of their professional education. Being able to use appropriate academic vocabulary in writing is essential for this kind of activity.
Developing Academic Literacy correlates with the book Academic Vocabulary in Use by Michael McCarthy and Felicity O’Dell (Cambridge University Press, 2008) and can be used as a source of additional exercises to practice topics covered there. Out of 50 units presented in this book we have chosen 45 which are of particular importance for the context of the National Research University. However, each unit of the present book contains not only practical exercises but also a theoretical part explaining the use of studied lexical units. Thus, the book can be used independently. As each unit covers a different lexical topic, the units can be studied in any order.
The tasks are aimed at both recognizing the lexis (on its own and within short contexts) and using it. The exercises comprise such tasks as matching words with their definitions, synonyms, antonyms, completing sentences with appropriate words, matching parts of sentences. Special attention is paid to collocations in academic context. The illustrative examples have mostly been taken from the British National Corpus, the Corpus of Contemporary American English and monolingual English dictionaries.
The book can be used both in class and individually. The exercises are provided with the Key, which allows students to check their answers, and, thus, makes the book suitable for self-study purposes. The book is provided with the Resource bank, which consists of abstracts from academic articles. All the abstracts contain lexical units studied in the book and can be used as a source of additional exercises by a teacher or self-check material by a student.
The book is to be used as a supplement to an Upper Intermediate course in General English aiming to develop academic skills of reading and writing around the topics and vocabulary of 5 Units in the course book «Upstream Upper Intermediate» by Bob Obee –Virginia Evans (1, 2, 3, 6 and 9). Each section of the book includes instructions on developing basic reading and writing skills and several tasks to practise the skills.
The publication aims at informing a wide range of readers that are interested in the problem of climate change from a Russian perspective, such as students of environmental subjects, media and members of nature protection organisations. The brochure provides short answers to many questions related to the continuation of international actions regarding limitation and reduction of greenhouse gas emissions after 2012 – after completion of the first commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol.
Over the past decade Russia has experienced stable economic growth with Gross Domestic Product (GDP) growing by 7 percent per year from 1998 to 2007. While the nation still enjoys a relatively healthy growth rate, analysis shows that the sources for the future growth are limited and to boost growth Russia should rely on increasing labor productivity. Improving productivity will impose new demands on Russia's workforce requiring better skills to satisfy the needs of economy growth. The international business environment survey reports that Russia's private sector considers the lack of skills and education of workers to be the most severe constraint on its expansion and growth. Despite the very high level of formal education attained by Russian workers the problem behind this may be explained by the current quality and content of education, which does not develop the necessary skills and competences demanded by the labor market. This report examines the reasons and the consequences of this skills deficit, which constrain productivity and limits innovation ultimately stifling accelerated economic growth in Russia. The objectives of the report are: 1) to deepen the understanding of the structure and composition of this skills deficit by analyzing in detail the demand for and supply of particular cognitive and non-cognitive skills; 2) to review the capacity and problems of the current systems for skills provision in Russia both through the public and private provision thereby identifying some of the underlying reasons for this skills gap; and 3) to support the development of evidence-based policy making in professional education and training, which will lead to a system better responding to the challenges of the economy and labor market.
This case study has two goals: (1) to present Russia’s experience in strengthening its student assessment system, and (2) to share lessons learned for the benefit of other countries that may be interested in strengthening their own student assessment systems. The paper examines reforms to the enabling context that supports educational assessment in Russia—that is, reforms that affected the policy framework and institutions, the development of human capacity, and funding sources. It then analyzes reforms to large‐scale assessments, examinations, and classroom assessment activities; identifies the driving forces that contributed to the reforms; and extracts key lessons about strengthening an educational assessment system.
in the article explains the importance of the development of human individuality, are proposed the external manifestations of individuality learner, gaming technology - the business game with a status as a mechanism of manifestations the of individuality learner: "International Summit to address the problems of combating terrorism" (learners in grades 9-11)
The 9th iteration of this go-to textbook on contemporary Russian politics offers comprehensive and critical discussion of the country’s most recent developments, providing substantive coverage of the key areas in domestic and foreign Russian politics. Ranging from established topics such as executive leadership, parties and elections, to newer issues of national identity, protest, and Russia and Greater Eurasia, it reflects the changing nature of Russian politics in a globalising world defined by ever-shifting balances of power.
Building on the success of previous versions, Developments in Russian Politics 9 is an established text for modules on Russian politics. Its chapters can also be used as standalone or supplementary reading at various points throughout courses on comparative government and politics. Accessibly written, and compiled by an international team of specialists, it will appeal to both undergraduate and postgraduate students from across the world.