The goals of research on conceptual metaphor in discourse are at present remarkably multifaceted, from describing specific social, pragmatic, rhetorical, aesthetic, and discursive functions in real discourse data, through assessing metaphor entrenchment in the cultural and conceptual system, to identification methods as well as criteria for metaphorical mapping description and classification. The volume the reader is about to explore provides a broad panorama of perspectives tackling diverse aspects of metaphor analysis, including a wide range of topics such as the levels of source domain knowledge configuration, new Metaphor analysis in discourse. Introduction 7 target domain knowledge, conscious usage, metaphor identification procedures, communicative functions, linguistic metaphor, visual modes of metaphorical expression, corpus processing, trans-modal metaphor, among others. One of the assets of this collective work consists in showing how the scrutiny of metaphorical connections in multimodal discourse reveals the conceptual nature of metaphorical thinking. The book is organized in three parts, each one focussing on certain aspects of metaphor analysis in discourse. The first part emphasizes the description and characterization of metaphorical knowledge. The chapters offer a view on knowledge configurations like image schemas, frames, scenarios and domains that configure particular kinds of discourse and knowledge. The second part puts the stress on communicative aspects, particularly on the analysis of author/speaker intentionality and the tools to measure intention and effect in metaphor usage. Finally, the third block in the volume delves into the intricacies of disclosing metaphorical codes in non-linguistic modes of semiosis, be it cartoons, film, or other visual media.
The book is devoted to the problems of Informational and Telecommunicational law, Copyright law, Electronic contracts.
From London and Paris to Barcelona and Berlin cities seek to boost cycling. Some cities manage to create a lasting result. In other cities, urban cycling hardly increases. This richly illustrated book shows why some capitals and business centers became real cycling cities, while others did not. The book analyzes 100 years of urban cycling‒policy, use, and practice in 14 European cities in 9 countries. It shows how policy makers, activists, and cyclists may make a difference. The book also includes unique illustrations (ca. 80), graphs (ca. 100), and maps (ca 15). Cycling Cities provides a fascinating new insight into 100 years of urban cycling in Europe. It analyzes 14 cities in nine countries, from the capitals Antwerp, Amsterdam, Budapest, Copenhagen, and Stockholm to the industrial hubs Eindhoven, Lyon, Manchester, and Southeast-Limburg, and the business towns Basel, Enschede, Hannover, Malmö, and Utrecht. The 14 case studies show how each of the urban areas developed its own unique cycling culture. Over the past century, local European policymakers curtailed or encouraged cycling by: building or demolishing cycling infrastructures; granting or denying cyclists’ rights to all roads; creating public transit systems in competition or in tandem with walking and cycling; and curbing or facilitating automobility. The authors trace the role of authorities and engineers as well as cyclists and community groups in shaping local cycling policies and practices. They show how these local outcomes featured in transnational debates on urban mobility and livability alongside traffic management and safety. They compare the urban areas' varying histories of embracing pedestrians, cyclists, and motorists Cycling Cities presents a long-term and transnational perspective for everyone interested in today's urban mobility, sustainability, and cycling. The book offers policymakers, community groups, politicians, scholars, and teachers new and usable insights in the patterns behind the development of urban traffic. The book is a must for any policymaker, student, or scholar interested in urban sustainable mobility. Cycling Cities is the first outcome of the international research and teaching program Sustainable Urban Mobility, 1890-present (SUM).
This book is devoted to the international dispute resolution in various contexts.
Damages Claims for the Infringement of Competition Law provides a discussion of the emerging field of competition law damages and explores the important questions it raises about the use of the traditional tort law categories in an area of law that is heavily infused with economic analysis. The book combines a corrective justice perspective with an empirical and theoretical analysis of the practice of competition law damages in various jurisdictions in Europe. Rather than adopting the traditional economic analysis of law approach, the authors respect the autonomy of the fields of law and economics, while attempting to identify the areas of conflict that may emerge when economic concepts and categories are integrated in the legal system.
A survey of the Samizdat Archive of the Institute of Eastern Europe in Bremen. Introductory texts and annotated catalogue.
Der Sammelband vereint herausragende Beiträge der Konferenz Welt und Wissenschaft 2017 an der National Research University Higher School of Economics in Moskau.
The study analyzes the genesis of the modern attitude towards spelling and spelling mistakes in Germany and in Russia in the nineteenth century, showing that both the spelling norms and the relevance of their violation are social constructions to do with major developments of the time such as industrialization, political reaction, proliferation of literacy and mass schooling, and introduction of exams and grading as means to check the upward social mobility via education.