From London and Paris to Barcelona and Berlin cities seek to boost cycling. Some cities manage to create a lasting result. In other cities, urban cycling hardly increases. This richly illustrated book shows why some capitals and business centers became real cycling cities, while others did not. The book analyzes 100 years of urban cycling‒policy, use, and practice in 14 European cities in 9 countries. It shows how policy makers, activists, and cyclists may make a difference. The book also includes unique illustrations (ca. 80), graphs (ca. 100), and maps (ca 15). Cycling Cities provides a fascinating new insight into 100 years of urban cycling in Europe. It analyzes 14 cities in nine countries, from the capitals Antwerp, Amsterdam, Budapest, Copenhagen, and Stockholm to the industrial hubs Eindhoven, Lyon, Manchester, and Southeast-Limburg, and the business towns Basel, Enschede, Hannover, Malmö, and Utrecht. The 14 case studies show how each of the urban areas developed its own unique cycling culture. Over the past century, local European policymakers curtailed or encouraged cycling by: building or demolishing cycling infrastructures; granting or denying cyclists’ rights to all roads; creating public transit systems in competition or in tandem with walking and cycling; and curbing or facilitating automobility. The authors trace the role of authorities and engineers as well as cyclists and community groups in shaping local cycling policies and practices. They show how these local outcomes featured in transnational debates on urban mobility and livability alongside traffic management and safety. They compare the urban areas' varying histories of embracing pedestrians, cyclists, and motorists Cycling Cities presents a long-term and transnational perspective for everyone interested in today's urban mobility, sustainability, and cycling. The book offers policymakers, community groups, politicians, scholars, and teachers new and usable insights in the patterns behind the development of urban traffic. The book is a must for any policymaker, student, or scholar interested in urban sustainable mobility. Cycling Cities is the first outcome of the international research and teaching program Sustainable Urban Mobility, 1890-present (SUM).
This book is devoted to the international dispute resolution in various contexts.
Damages Claims for the Infringement of Competition Law provides a discussion of the emerging field of competition law damages and explores the important questions it raises about the use of the traditional tort law categories in an area of law that is heavily infused with economic analysis. The book combines a corrective justice perspective with an empirical and theoretical analysis of the practice of competition law damages in various jurisdictions in Europe. Rather than adopting the traditional economic analysis of law approach, the authors respect the autonomy of the fields of law and economics, while attempting to identify the areas of conflict that may emerge when economic concepts and categories are integrated in the legal system.
A survey of the Samizdat Archive of the Institute of Eastern Europe in Bremen. Introductory texts and annotated catalogue.
Der Sammelband vereint herausragende Beiträge der Konferenz Welt und Wissenschaft 2017 an der National Research University Higher School of Economics in Moskau.
This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 28th International Conference on Data Analytics and Management in Data Intensive Domains, DAMDID/RCDL 2016, held in Ershovo, Moscow, Russia, in October 2016.
The 16 revised full papers presented together with one invited talk and two keynote papers were carefully reviewed and selected from 57 submissions. The papers are organized in topical sections on semantic modeling in data intensive domains; knowledge and learning management; text mining; data infrastructures in astrophysics; data analysis; research infrastructures; position paper.
Data Correcting Algorithms in Combinatorial Optimization focuses on algorithmic applications of the well known polynomially solvable special cases of computationally intractable problems. The purpose of this text is to design practically efficient algorithms for solving wide classes of combinatorial optimization problems. Researches, students and engineers will benefit from new bounds and branching rules in development efficient branch-and-bound type computational algorithms. This book examines applications for solving the Traveling Salesman Problem and its variations, Maximum Weight Independent Set Problem, Different Classes of Allocation and Cluster Analysis as well as some classes of Scheduling Problems. Data Correcting Algorithms in Combinatorial Optimization introduces the data correcting approach to algorithms which provide an answer to the following questions: how to construct a bound to the original intractable problem and find which element of the corrected instance one should branch such that the total size of search tree will be minimized. The PC time needed for solving intractable problems will be adjusted with the requirements for solving real world problems.
Data Mining in Agriculture represents a comprehensive effort to provide graduate students and researchers with an analytical text on data mining techniques applied to agriculture and environmental related fields. This book presents both theoretical and practical insights with a focus on presenting the context of each data mining technique rather intuitively with ample concrete examples represented graphically and with algorithms written in MATLAB®.