This compendium comprises transcript of the workshop on ‘Human Rights on the Internet: legal frames and technological implications’ organized by the Higher School of Economics on the 7th Internet Governance Forum (Baku, Azerbaijan, 6–9 November, 2012) and relevant articles on legal and technological issues of Internet Governance in sphere of human rights, prepared by the group of legal and technical scholars of information studies of the Higher School of Economics. This compendium is devoted to the forthcoming 8th Meeting of the Internet Governance Forum on Bali, Indonesia, 22–25 October 2013.
This compendium comprises transcripts of the two workshops on 'Empowering displaced people and migrants through online services' and 'Free Software and Human Rights on the Internet' organized by the Higher School of Economics on the 8th Internet Governance Forum (Bali, Indonesia, 22–25 October, 2013) and relevant articles on legal and technological issues of Internet Governance in sphere of human rights, prepared by the group of legal and technical scholars of information studies. This compendium is devoted to the 9th Meeting of the Internet Governance Forum held in Istanbul, Turkey, 2–5 September 2014.
The data book prepared by the Institute for Statistical Studies and Economics of Knowledge, National Research University – Higher School of Economics covers data on the level and trends in the education indicators in the Russian Federation, including comparative international data. Some sections contain an assessment of the educational attainment of students, relation between the educational attainment and the labour market, education funding, enrolment, personnel, and conditions of studying. The data book includes information of the Federal Service for State Statistics, Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation, Federal Treasury, database of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (as of the end of 2010) as well as results of own methodological and analytical studies of the Institute for Statistical Studies and Economics of Knowledge, National Research University – Higher School of Economics.
The data book presents the results of statistical innovation surveys in the Russian Federation. It contains internationally compatible indicators characterizing the level of innovative activity in industry and services. The publication covers statistical data reflecting innovation expenditure and output, co-operational linkages, and factors hampering innovation. Specific chapter is devoted to ecological innovation. International comparisons with a wide range of innovation indicators are provided as well. The data book includes information of the Federal Service for State Statistics, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, European Commission, Eurostat, national statistical agencies, and results of own methodological and analytical studies of the HSE Institute for Statistical Studies and Economics of Knowledge.
In lieu of an introduction: This work, presented as a report at XV International April Conference of National Research University HSE, was started as a new version of the first chapter of my book published in 2002 “Russian Economy. Sources and Panorama of Market Reforms”.
The more I worked and read literature on the subject, the further I moved from the initial idea. Changes were especially significant after I read the works of E. Huntington and L. Harrison which emphasized the role of culture, which also includes institutions, in the development of the economy and society.
It happened so that I lost hope to rework the text of the mentioned book in the spirit of these ideas. It seemed appropriate to me to present the results of work in the form of this report mainly devoted to one task: understand the historical and institutional sources of the problems now faced by Russia which started its transition to the well-established European market and network economic model back in 1861. Thus, this report is focused on how Russia, unlike Europe, developed its national culture after 12th century, and how it formed the autocracy institution as a core of the political system. And how the traditions of this system influenced the development of the country again and again. It is understood that this subject attracted the attention of many researchers. Here I will mention the names of V.O. Klyuchevsky; A. Akhiezer, I. Klyamkin and I. Yakovenko; Y. Pivovarov and A. Fursov, L.S. Vasiliev, as well as R. Pipes. The key moment I would like to draw your attention to is the collision of totally different structures, though compatible under certain conditions: hierarchy of domination and submission typical of feudalism and bureaucracy, on the one hand, and the network market structure born in the Ancient Greece on the other hand. Then it revived in Europe, first in medieval cities, and then it became the basis for capitalism and democracy development in present- day understanding. This system of institutions generated industrial economy and ensured a high pace of its development. It also contributed to growing importance of science and accelerating the processes of innovations creation and realization. According to E. Machiusson and G. Clark, the scope of the world economy increased ten times in the past 200 years (1800–2003), while there was no substantial growth during the previous 3,000 years.
As I understand, Russia started transition from hierarchy to network in 1861, after the Emancipation reform. Since that time it has 5 been undergoing a painstaking process of transformation, with the Soviet experiment being its stage. It was started by people that believed in the truth of Marxist theory that adopted the collapse of market economy and its replacement by large-scale machine industry. By 1970s it became clear that Marx was mistaken: the market mechanism did not disappear, it confirmed its role in the development and globalization of the world economy. Russia managed to put an end to the Soviet experiment and puts great efforts to overcome the contradictory processes of renewal and development of the present-day market economy, as well as the retarding influence of long-standing traditions of hierarchy and despotism domination. These questions are dealt with in greater detail in the offered report.
The data book is the continuation of annual editions of HSE Institute for Statistical Studies and Economics of Knowledge (HSE ISSEK) dedicated to Information Society Statistics. It offers statistical data on goods and services production, employment, investments, research and development, innovation and financial activities in the ICT sector. Data on business tendencies surveys with assessments of level and tendencies of main economic indicators for enterprises rendering computer related services are provided. Some sections contain indicators of ICT usage in business enterprise sector, public authorities, social sector, and households and by individuals. The indicators considered are based on state-of-the art methodological approaches to Information Society Statistics and meet fully the requirements of international statistical standards that allows to complete and provide international comparisons. The data book includes information of the Federal Service for State Statistics, Eurostat, Rosstat, OECD, UNCTAD, and own methodological and analytical studies and special surveys of HSE ISSEK.
The data book is published for the first time by the Institute for Statistical Studies and conomics of Knowledge (ISSEK), National Research University — Higher School of Economics (HSE). It offers international comparisons of information society indicators: ICT infrastructure, ICT sector, international trade of ICT goods and services, ICT usage by households, individuals, enterprises, the public sector, and the social sphere. The special section comprises information society indicators by regions of the Russian Federation.
The data book includes information of the Federal Service for State Statistics, Ministry of Telecom and Mass Communications of the Russian Federation, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), Eurostat, International Telecommunications Union (ITU), United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD), United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO), World Economic Forum and results of national representative surveys of Russia’s adult population, implemented in the project «Monitoring of Innovative Behaviour of the Population» in framework of the HSE Basic Research Programme in 2009 and 2010 by HSE ISSEK and the methodological and analytical studies of the Institute for Statistical Studies and Economics of Knowledge, National Research University — Higher School of Economics.
Toric geometry exhibited a profound relation between algebra and topology on one side and combinatorics and convex geometry on the other side. In the last decades, the interplay between algebraic and convex geometry has been explored and used successfully in a much more general setting: first, for varieties with an algebraic group action (such as spherical varieties) and recently for all algebraic varieties (construction of Newton-Okounkov bodies). The main goal of the conference is to survey recent developments in these directions. Main topics of the conference are: Theory of Newton polytopes and Newton-Okounkov bodies; Toric geometry, geometry of spherical varieties, Schubert calculus, geometry of moduli spaces; Tropical geometry and convex geometry; Real algebraic geometry and fewnomial theory; Polynomial vector fields and the Hilbert 16th problem.