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Нуреев Р. М., Маркин Е. В. М.: НОРМА, ИНФРА-М, 2015.

The role of sports mega events for economic and political life of the nations are strongly increased. It presents a great interest to the theme of public choice analysis of sport in general and the Olympics in particular. "Olympic Games Economics" - the first Russian monograph on this subject. It  gives a periodization of the stages of the international Olympic movement, analyzes the main sources of funding for the Olympic Games and the mechanism of their redistribution. Special attention is paid to the Olympic business cycle, its unity and difference with the classical business cycle and political business cycle.

The monograph discusses the features of the decision making process at different stages to host the Olympics. International Olympic Committee has developed a special system of Applicants and Candidate cities estimation. Candidature Acceptance Procedure includes 11 indicators. All these indicators are summarized in Final Matrix, which is used as a bases for candidate cities defining. The authors describe this indictors, detect the advantages and disadvantages of them and analyze the importance of each of them for final score. International sport analytical agencies ("GamesBids" and "Around the Rings") also have their own ratings. The authors investigate the indicators which influence on the final indexes and see how they show the public opinion.

A special attention is paid to the voting procedure in the final part of the decision. The authors analyze the preferences of the IOC members in selecting the capitals of the Olympic Games, and also examines predictors of informal relations in the decision making process. 2002 Olympic winter Games case is analyzed as an example. The authors investigate the factors contributing to the development of principal-agent problem and logrolling.

Features of voting and logrolling are based on the choice of 2014 Olympic Winter Games capital (Sochi, Russia). The authors consider three models of management and financing of the Olympics and make a conclusion about which of them gives the greatest scope for abuse and corruption, and which one is used currently in Sochi.

Cost-benefit analysis allows to define when expenditures are the biggest and when the revenues are the highest. Let’s see on the costs and benefits of Olympic Games organizing committees on different stages of the Olympic business cycle (see Tables 1-4).

Table 1

Public and private cost-benefit analysis on pre-Olympic stage (Participation in election procedure)

 

Costs

Benefits

Public

n       Olympic bid documentary support,

n       Participation fee,

n      preparing and organization of activities to popularize the idea of Olympic Games hosting inside the country and abroad

n      Olympic Games Questionary preparing

n      Applicant City advertising,

n      infrastructure development and preparing for IOC Commission visit

n      country image increase,

n      knowledge increase about applicant city abroad

Business

- Participation analysis

n      Investment attraction increase

 

 

 

 

 

Table 2

Public and private cost-benefit analysis on pre-Olympic stage (Olympic Games Organizing)

 

Costs

Benefits

Public

n    Organization costs,

     - Administrative costs

     - Opening and closing ceremonies

     - Olympic touch relay

n    Technical costs (stadiums, swimming pools, Olympic village, press-center etc.)

n    Infrastructure development (roads, underground, electronic communications etc.)

n   Environmental protection

DIRECT

n  TV rights selling,

n   Sponsors (national and worldwide)

n   licensing

n   ticketing (partially)

n   Sells through the Internet

n   Coins, lottery etc.

INDIRECT

n   unemployment decrease

n   aggregate demand growth

n   taxes growth

n   business activity growth

n   country and city availability growth

Business

n   Hotels construction

n   Tourism infrastructure development in hope for the future benefits

n   Investment attraction growth

n   Advertising of goods and services

 

Table 3

Public and private cost-benefit analysis on Olympic stage

 

Costs

Benefits

Public

n    Security

n    Sportsmen accommodation and food

n    Advertising activities, festivals etc.

n   Utilities

n   Subsidies to the Factories and companies which are closed for the Games period to traffic jams avoiding and so on.

n   number of tourists increase,

n   country image increase,

n    ticketing (partially)

n   Sells through the Internet

n    GDP and GRP growth

n   taxes

Business

n    General organizational costs

n   restrictions for factories and industry companies work

n    country image increase,

n   Investment attraction increase

n   Advertising of goods and services

n    souvenirs  and sport equipment selling

n   plastic cards transactions

n   hotels full filling

n   sportsmen and guests expenditures

 

Table 4

Public and private cost-benefit analysis on post-Olympic stage

 

Costs

Benefits

Public

n    Infrastructure and equipment operation costs

n   bank interest revenue

n   assets selling,

n    hosting other mega events

Business

n    Infrastructure and equipment operation costs

n    hosting other mega events

n   souvenirs  and sport equipment selling

n    tourism

 

Gross Spending Related to the 2010 Games and Distribution of the investments for the Olympic Games are presented on the Fig. 1 and Fig. 2.

 

Fig. 1. Summary of Gross Spending Related to the 2010 Games

Source: 2010 Winter Olympic and Paralympic Games Report

 

We can see that the biggest part of the costs is required 4-6 years before the Olympics. This fact proves our theory about the costs distribution during the Olympic business cycle. From the other side, as statistics shows (see Fig. 6) the largest number of investments is really made 3-1 years before the Games.

 

Fig. 2. Distribution of the investments for the Olympic Games (%)

 

 

Created by: authors on the base of  Preuss H. The Olympics. Handbook on the Economics of Sport. Edited by Wladimir Andreff abd Stefan Szymanski. Edward Elgar Publishing, UK, 2009

Thus we should correct our model and increase economic activity during the period of 3-1 years before the Games and decrease the political activity during the period of Olympics hosting (see Fig. 3).

 

Fig. 3. Political and economic business activity inside the Olympic business cycle (a typical issue)

 

Created by: authors

 

The mechanisms of administration plays an important role during the Olympic business cycle. High-quality effective management and planning allows to make profitable and success Olympic Games.

Olympic Games hosting gives an impulse to the economy of their countries and also aims to achieve two main objectives: profits maximizing and positive externalities maximizing.

Private business is more interested in achieving the first objective, state – the second one.

All sources of events and infrastructure funding, which come from the state, regional and local (municipal) levels, constitute public financing. All private domestic and foreign expenses are private funding. Value of public and private funding can be divided into 3 basic models of administration and financing, which can be applied to any Olympic Games:

1)      model of public administration and financing (the share of public participation more than 67%);

2)      the mixed model of administration and financing (the share of public participation from 33% to 67%);

3)      model of private administration and financing (the share of public participation less than 33%)

Figure 4 shows what model of administration and finance was typical for the Olympics Games in 1972-2008.

The monograph also systematized world experience in organizing and hosting the Olympic Winter Games and special attention is given to the first socio-economic results of the XXII Olympic Winter Games in Sochi of 2014.

 

Figure 4. Administration and financing models of summer Olympic Games in 1972-2008.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Created by: Preuss, Holger. Economics of the Olympic Games. Hosting the Games 1972-2000. Sydney: Walla Walla Press in conjunction with the Centre for Olympic Studies, The University of New South Wales, 2000, 291 p.; Коваль В.И. Олимпиада 80 (экономический аспект), «ЗНАНИЕ», Москва, 1978 (Koval V.I. Olympics 1980 (economic aspects). Moscow, 1978, in Russian); Прицельный олимпийский огонь // Эксперт, Москва, август 2004 (Direct Olympic fire // Expert, August 2004, in Russian); Игры кончились // Smart Money, 28.07.2008, № 27 (117) (The Games ended // Smart Money, 28.07.2008, № 27 (117) , in Russian).

 

 

Monograph is intended for teachers of economic institutions and faculties, graduate students, all interested in the actual problems of the theory and practice the Olympic Games economy.

Added: Jul 16, 2015
Book
Розанова Н. М., Вурос А. Д. М.: ТЕИС, 2000.
Added: Jan 9, 2015
Book
Ролан Ж. М.: Издательский дом НИУ ВШЭ, 2012.
Added: Sep 21, 2012
Book
Гайдар Е. Т., Главацкая Н. Г., Рогов К. и др. М.: Дело, 2012.
Added: Dec 21, 2012
Book
Григорьев Л. М. Т. 2. Издательский дом Международного университета в Москве, 2010.
Added: Oct 29, 2013
Book
Одинцова М. И. М.: Издательский дом ГУ-ВШЭ, 2007.
Added: Dec 6, 2011
Book
Коновалов А. П., Терещенко Д. С. Ч. 1: Ресурсы организации. Петрозаводск: Издательство ПетрГУ, 2015.
Added: Sep 15, 2018
Book
Сироткина Н. Г., Шульгина Н. К. Н. Новгород: Издательство Волго-Вятской академии государственной службы, 2006.
Added: Dec 18, 2012
Book
Волков Г. М., Волков В. Г., Гурьянова С. Ю. и др. М.: Московский государственный институт электроники и математики, 2004.
Added: Jan 6, 2013
Book
Клочкова Е. Н., Кузнецов В. И., Платонова Т. Е. М.: Юрайт, 2014.
Added: Dec 19, 2013
Book
СПб.: Питер, 2010.
Added: May 24, 2013
Book
Edited by: Л. А. Аносова, М. М. Амирханов, А. А. Анфиногентова и др. Вып. 13. Волгоград: ВолГУ, 2012.
Added: Feb 14, 2013
Book
Евгений Гавриленков, Антон Струченевский, Сергей Коныгин и др. Вып. 4-7. М.: Sberbank CIB, 2015.
Added: Aug 12, 2015
Book
Евгений Гавриленков, Антон Струченевский, Сергей Коныгин Вып. 1-3. М.: Sberbank CIB, 2015.
Added: Aug 13, 2015
Book
Евгений Гавриленков, Антон Струченевский, Сергей Коныгин Вып. 1-12. SBERBANK, 2012.
Added: Mar 19, 2013
Book
Евгений Гавриленков, Антон Струченевский, Сергей Коныгин Вып. 1-12. М.: Sberbank CIB, 2014.
Added: Aug 26, 2014
Book
Гребенников С., Казакулова Г. Р., Левова И. и др. М.: 2014.
Added: Dec 22, 2014
Book
Edited by: П. М. Мозиас М.: ИНИОН РАН, 2013.

The collection consists of a number of refereed essays, representing the mainstream of the Chinese economic thought and the Western sinology nowadays. It covers various fields of China’s socio-economic transformation. Specific features of macroeconomic dynamics in China are studied in depth. Special attention is dedicated to the intermediate results of structural reforms. China’s external economic expansion is also covered in its various dimensions. The materials refereed may be of an interest for those dealing with the issues of economies in transition and thinking how to apply the successful elements of China’s experiencе in the Russian circumstances.

Added: Jan 24, 2014
Book
Шишкин С. В. М.: Издательский дом ГУ-ВШЭ, 2003.
Added: Nov 15, 2010
Book
Вып. ЭКО 40. М.: ИМЭМО РАН, 2013.

EU member states economies after the introduction of the euro: from euphoria of 1999 to the debt crisis of the 2010s. Collective monograph of the Center for European Studies shows results of three-year research project on structural shifts in economy of all large and some small EU member states. Specifics of modern economic and social policy in EU countries and features of anti-crisis measures are studied. Reasons of difficult transformation of the EU economy towards an innovative way of development are explained. The first part of the book deals with problems of economic integration in Europe and specifics of five leading member states – Germany, the UK, France, Italy and Spain. The second part of the book is devoted to economies and economic policies of various small member states – Greece, Ireland, Sweden, Denmark, Finland, the Czech Republic and Baltic states. The most actual EU economic problems (the ECB‘s monetary policy, shifts in the energy sector, anti-crisis government-to-business models and migration flows) are investigated in detail in the third part of the book.

Added: Jun 20, 2014