In the present collective monography by the Russian and Spanish authors key problems of the current economic policy in both countries are analyzed. Each of authors introduces the vision of national situations in a global context.
The Handbook of Research on International Collaboration, Economic Development, and Sustainability in the Arctic discusses the perspectives and major challenges of the investment collaboration and development and commercial use of trade routes in the Arctic. Featuring research on topics such as agricultural production, environmental resources, and investment collaboration, this book is ideally designed for policymakers, business leaders, and environmental researchers seeking coverage on new practices and solutions in the sphere of achieving sustainability in economic exploration of the Artic region
Global warming is recognized as one of the most urgent challenges for human society in the 21st century. The international community has agreed to undertake necessary actions to prevent dangerous anthropogenic impacts on the climatic system. Based on the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (2014), the UNFCCC Parties adopted the Paris Agreement aimed at limiting the global mean surface temperature rise by “well below 2 degrees Celsius”. Such an ambitious “climatic” target requires unprecedented efforts to reduce carbon emissions to almost zero worldwide this century. Moreover, in order to keep the warming below 1.5°C, the global total emissions must be reduced by 50% or more by 2050 (compared to current levels) and reach net-zero levels afterwards. In practical terms, it means that most of the countries should deeply decarbonize their economies, energy systems, industries, transport, buildings, products and services, while continuing growth of GDP and the standard of living of the population. The developed countries agreed to take the lead in climate change mitigation under the UNFCCC; however, the largest developing countries and emerging economies have started playing substantial roles in carbon emissions nowadays. In this decade, China became the world No.1 CO2 emitter overcoming the United States. The Northeast Asian (NEA) region, including China, Japan, Mongolia, the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, the Republic of Korea, and the Russian Federation, is responsible for annual emissions of over 12.4 billion tonnes of CO2 or approximately 40% of global energy-related CO2 emissions. These countries are huge contributors to global warming today and may increase their share further. The traditional way of combusting the huge fossil fuels reserves (coal, gas, and oil) available in the Northeast Asian region would emit greenhouse gases substantially exceeding the amounts that would warm the planet by 2°C. On the other hand, plentiful sources of renewable energy (solar, wind, hydro, tidal, and biomass, etc.) in combination with advanced technologies, investments, and land infrastructure developments can transform the Northeast Asian countries into decarbonized, climate- and environment-friendly economies with sustainable growth and development, fully consistent with the goals and commitments under the Paris Climate Agreement. Delays with the deep decarbonization of the Northeast Asian economies will impose higher risks for communities and life-supporting ecosystems, more losses and stranded assets for businesses, and slower technological progress worldwide. The analysis of challenges and opportunities in deep decarbonization pathways for the Northeast Asian region as a whole is presented in this publication. We raise many questions, and yet have not so many answers. By publishing this text, we want to invite all interested and concerned parties to start thinking about and debating these new, but very up-to-date issues of deep transformation of our economies, industries, consumer behavior, and ways of living in climate-neutral patterns, in order that we can urgently meet the need to save our planet and keep it in good shape for the generations to come.
In order to understand a country as large and diverse as Russia, it is extremely important to consider spatial patterns of economic development. As Russia looks for new drivers of economic growth, it is important to understand the structural conditions that have defined economic development in Russia’s regions. This report uses the Economic Potential Index (EPI) methodology to identify the conditions that drive regional development. Economic potential is the level of productivity that is possible for a region to achieve given its structural endowments, which are characteristics that are hard to alter in the short run. The methodology used in this report combines quantitative analysis of drivers of productivity across regions with in-depth case studies that focus on the role of regional governments and institutions in converting endowments into economic outcomes. This methodology generates insights that are relevant for both national and regional governments. The first chapter of this report provides an overview of regional development in Russia over the last 25 years and identifies “Russia-specific” national structural conditions that may affect regional development. The second chapter discusses the results of an assessment of economic potential at the regional level and the factors that shape it in Russia. The third chapter focuses on the role of national and regional governance, policy, and institutions in promoting economic development of the regions. The final chapter proposes policy priorities for both regional and national authorities.
The set of problems relating to the South China Sea – a vast maritime area forming the strategic heartland of Southeast Asia – has traditionally loomed large in foreign policy priorities of the key powers shaping the regional geopolitical landscape. Currently, there are strong reasons for arguing that the South China Sea issue is very likely to increase its rank in the key priorities of the US, China and ASEAN.
The forecast covers the period up to 2035. It describes dynamic trends that will shape the future of the world during the nearest 20 years. The aim of this study is to foresee the challenges awaiting the world and the forthcoming opportunities which can be used in the interests of the Russian state, ensuring its role as an active participant in the formation of the future world order. The book presents a general analysis of the main trends of world development, its spiritual culture, ideology, politics, innovation, economy, social sphere and interna tional security, the problems of globalization and regionalism. The final section of the book presents strategic recommendations for Russia. Prospective readers of this book include staff members of government institutions and management bodies, research, expert and business communities. It also may be recommended for student scholars of international affairs.
Urban population is growing worldwide. Our societies are facing grand challenges like climate change and growing inequalities between people. There is an increasing need to develop cities that are environmentally and socially sustainable, functional and supporting well-being of their inhabitants. When striving towards these goals, transportation and mobility play a crucial role. Easy and environmentally sustainable mobility options are called for in most cities. For these to attract users, they need to be safe and pleasant, providing positive experiences and well-being in addition to efficiency in time or cost.
NECTAR conference is organized with a title “Towards Human Scale Cities – Open and Happy” to reflect the new requirements of urban transportation. This 15th NECTAR conference, organized in Helsinki 5th - 7th June 2019, provides presentations by world-class keynotes Mikael Colville-Andersen and Professor Tim Schwanen, who approach human scale mobility from the viewpoints of a designer and a researcher. More than 140 scientific presentations explore advancements in the field of transport, communication and mobility, with a particular focus on good quality mobility options for people. The focus of the conference is urban transportation and the new possibilities that open data and digital technologies provide for mobility solutions and their research. Presentations provide food for thought concerning mobility choices and quality, new mobility solutions like MaaS, and policies that are implemented to support them.
Helsinki offers an interesting environment for the 2019 NECTAR conference. It is the home of the busiest passenger harbor in Europe with a twin-city development with Tallinn across the bay, and a major air transportation hub between Europe and Asia. It is one of the fastest growing capital regions in Europe, with large densification developments taking place in old logistic centers: harbor areas of Jätkäsaari and Kalasatama and a train depot in Pasila. Public transportation is valued high by citizens, as well as politicians and planners making investment decisions for the future. First robotized buses are in operation and MaaS solutions are emerging. New bike sharing system is one of the most used in the world and has expanded to cover most of the city region. As everywhere in Europe, new forms of micromobility from electronic scooters to electric longboards are appearing on the streets making planners and police puzzled. The city has profiled itself as an open city: large amounts of open data about the region have been made available and the region of Helsinki is committed to open and transparent decision
and policy making. This supports also research in the major universities: University of Helsinki and Aalto University, the local organizers of the conference.
We anticipate that the conference days will forward our thinking on how to make cities more sustainable, functional and pleasant for people, and how to study them scientifically in a meaningful and transparent manner.
Germany is a diverse country, a fact that offers opportunities for future development in a globalized world, but also poses challenges for the social coexistence of people. The majority of Germans tend to regard increasing diversity as an asset rather than a danger, and the acceptance of social diversity in Germany is well developed. At the same time, acceptance of diversity varies widely depending on the region and the dimension of diversity. While acceptance of people with disabilities or another sexual orientation than one’s own is high, religious diversity is far less accepted. These are the findings of a representative study, “Cohesion in Diversity: Diversity Barometer 2019 of Robert Bosch Stiftung,” for which 3,025 German residents aged 16 and older were interviewed by telephone about their opinions and attitudes toward various social groups. Where and with regard to whom are people especially accepting of diversity? According to the overall diversity index, which is based on a scale from 0 to 100, the mean value for the acceptance of diversity in Germany currently stands at 68 points, clearly in the positive range. At the same time, there is a noticeable west-east and north-south divide: The top five ranks are occupied by Hamburg (72 points), Schleswig-Holstein (71 points), Bremen (71 points), Berlin (71 points), and Lower Saxony (70 points), in other words, the three city-states and two large states in northern Germany. Next come the other states in what used to be West Germany. Bringing up the rear are the former East German states (excluding Berlin), with scores between 65 and 61 points. In addition to regional differences, there are sometimes significant differences in the acceptance of individual dimensions of diversity. In Germany, acceptance of people with disabilities (83 points) and non-heterosexual orientation (77 points), for instance, but also of people with a different ethnic background (73 points) is high. A majority are still open to people of a different age (70 points), a different sex (69 points), and low socio-economic standing (58 points). Skepticism seems to be predominant solely with regard to religion and religious diversity (44 points). However, the findings suggest that, despite the current media focus, this result is not a rejection of “Muslims” alone; the low approval rating tends to indicate a general reservation against religious lifestyles and traditions. When it comes to factors that can positively impact approval of a pluralistic society, individual and personal aspects are particularly important; these include empathy, (a rather left) political leanings orientation, and a positive attitude toward globalization. Structural factors (economic strength, unemployment rate, etc.) in people’s home region are of secondary importance, although regions with higher income disparities also show greater acceptance of diversity. This finding suggests that the existence of a certain level of diversity is a basic prerequisite for having to learn and practice a constructive way of dealing with diversity in the first place.
Global transformations put to the agenda the necessity for the change in the economic geographical architecture of Russia in order to secure its access to the perspective centers of the global development. Th regions of the Big Volga and Caspian sea are now a priority. The sity of Saratov become he potntially dominating and consolidating regional center/
The transformation of spatial structure of air passenger flows of Russia in 1990–2000-ties is studied. The polycentric system of air flows has been transformed into hypercentralized monocentric one due to the crisis of 1990-ties. The level of airconnectivity of most of Russian regions decreased. Intraregional airlinks have disappeared. The neighbourly immediate air contacts have been eroded.
The book is dedicated to the specialists in transport geography, human geography, transportation planning, regional transportation economy, transport history.
The New Russian Encyclopedia is a fundamental reference publication in 18 volumes that characterizes nature, population, economy, history, science, art, technology and other important aspects. Contains about 60,000 articles, about 30,000 biographies, about 15,000 color illustrations, maps, charts, diagrams, tables. Leaves since 2003.
Within a brief historical period, BRICS as an inter-State association has become an influential player in the world economy and politics. BRICS is a primarily political entity, and in that regard, the BRICS grouping correlates with the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO). However, not all the expectations placed on the SCO by the founding countries at the time of its creation in 2001 have been met so far. The question is to what extent expectations may be fulfilled in case of BRICS.