Большая Российская энциклопедия
The article deals with the research of the German youth jargon using lexicographic sources of the second half of the XXth century. Semantic parallels with the student language of the fi rst half of the XIXth century are drawn. The article demonstrates the differences in the youth jargon of Eastern and Western Germany.
The article presents the history of the Longman dictionary that has become a bestseller all over the world. Revealing the translation of the lexicographic idea into practice, the author tells us about the scholarly disputes that accompanied the development of the principles of a new type of English dictionary.
The article deals with the sources of replenishing youth slang. There come to light general tendencies of extension of the body of youth slang vocabulary in German and Russian which include metaphorization, word-formation and borrowing. The Research is carried out on the material of the lexicographic sources of the XIX - XXI centuries.
The article dealts with German school and student sociolects of the first half of the XXth century. The data under linguistic analysis are lexicographic sources and theoretical articles of leading German linguists of that time. The focus is on the dictionary of Basler Studentensprache pubished in 1910. There is carried out comparative analysis of the youth sociolect of the past and the present and there singled out general tendencies in enriching their vocabulary.
The article presents the Typological Database of Qualities, which aims at providing a new tool for research in lexical typology. The database contains information on the lexicalization of several semantic fields of adjectives in different languages (like ‘sharp’ — ‘blunt’, ‘empty’ — ‘full’, ‘solid’ — ‘soft’, ‘thick’ — ‘thin’, ‘smooth’ — ‘rough’, etc.). We discuss issues concerning database structure (in particular, the choice of information units that would make the meanings from different languages comparable to each other). Special attention is devoted to the representation of figurative meanings in the Database which allows to investigate the models of their derivation from the literal meanings. The developed database can be used for solving both theoretical and practical tasks. On the practical level, the Database may serve as a multilingual dictionary which accounts for fine-grained differences in meaning between individual words. On the theoretical side, the Database allows for various generalizations on cross-linguistic patterns of polysemy and semantic change.