Коррупция и развитие
As other worldwide sourcing industries the retail sector is also prone to various forms of corruption. In particular large retail-chains doing business in developing countries are often faced with corrupt bureaucracy and struggle with dubious administrative processes. On the other hand the purchasing divisions of large retailers decide upon million dollar deals with their suppliers which may tempt manufacturers to pay bribes for winning the deal. While such forms of corruption may be found also for other businesses there are other practices which may be recognised as corruption which are typical in the retail sector. One of the most controversial discussions concerns the practice of so-called slotting fees which are charged to manufacturers as a contribution to the handling costs of the retailer. Since such fees are negotiated in secrecy and not broken down by categories of expenditure they are often seen as a bribery-like payment demanded for getting contracts or staying in business. In the following chapter we will analyze these practices from an economic perspective. We will provide some empirical findings on how such payments are assessed in practice and conclude with some ethical considerations concerning the practice and the effects of slotting fees.
Using World Values Survey data from several dozen countries around the world, this article analyzes the relationship between postmaterialist values and bribery (dis)approval in a multilevel framework. We find that people, who place stronger emphasis on postmaterialist values, tend to justify bribery more. However, the “ecological” effect of postmaterialism operates in the exactly opposite direction: A higher prevalence of postmaterialist values induces more bribery disapproval, and especially among postmaterialists themselves. In our view, this happens because the large number of people who internalized postmaterialist values generate positive social externalities which strengthen negative attitudes toward corruption. We outline a theoretical framework that explains why and how these externalities may emerge. Our results contribute to the literature on the sociocultural factors of corruption, provide a better understanding of the complex nature of postmaterialism, and also might be interesting in the light of ongoing discussions on whether moral attitudes are culturally universal or culturally specific.
The modern procurement system in Russia is considered to function economically and efficiently on the basis of principles of fair competition among its main participants. Practically the important principles of the procurement system are not implemented in all cases. The research agenda of authors focuses on the analysis of interactions between the economic agents in the procurement process, aimed at revealing the indicators of noncompetitive behavior between the buyers and the suppliers and only between the suppliers by means of econometrics (fuels and lubricants market of Moscow region as an example). The empirical data for the analysis consists of the information about the fulfilled purchases of oil-products in 4 neighboring districts of Moscow region: Orehovo-Zuevo, Pavlovskiy Posad, Egorievsk and Shatura in the period of 2007-2011.
The work is devoted to the analysis of entrepreneurial activities. The main purpose of paper is to better understand the institutional impact on entrepreneurship and business survival. Were used data from GEM (Global Entrepreneurship Monitor) for 98 countries throughout 1999-2016 as dependent variables such as total entrepreneurial activity (TEA), established business ownership (EBO), and early-stage business survival rate (EBO/TEA). As explanatory variables characterizing institutional environment we used the rule of law and control of corruption.The results show positive relationships between rule of law and early-stage business survival, and between control of corruption and early-stage business survival rate. Also the rule of law positively influence on level EBO. However, there was no evidence that rule of law and control of corruption are important for the total entrepreneurial activity.
Few tasks are more important in the post-communist setting than rebuilding the welfare state. We study individual preferences for increasing social welfare spending to reduce inequality. Using two surveys of about 34,000 and 37,000 Russians we show great importance of the bridging type of social capital for redistribution preferences in Russia as it precludes possibilities of cheating and free-riding. Instrumenting social capital with education, climate and distance from Moscow we deal with endogeneity concerns and also contribute to the understanding of the deep roots of social capital in Russia. We also claim that social capital in post-socialist countries could help mobilize public support for the redistribution schemes in spite of the fact that institutions are weak