Постсоветские трансформации: отражение в миграциях
This is a collection of scientific papers on migration studies.
The second volume of the series "Demography. Sociology. Economics" is the result of work of the Centre of Social Demography and Economic Sociology of the Institute for Socio-Political Research with scientists from the Far East. The book consists of three sections. The first section deals with the general features of demographic processes and demographic policy in the Far East. The second section of the tendencies of migration processes and approaches to migration management. The third section presents articles on the problems of labor market and employment in the regions of the Far East. The book is recommended for students, postgraduate students, teachers, scientists and experts in the field of demography, migration and of the labor market, as well as all those interested in the Russian Far East.
The North Caucasus is often considered to be a region of Russia where problems with official data on population dynamics are especially serious. This causes special difficulties for the planning of social policy there. Unreliable information on migration yields an incorrect assessment of the population size as a whole and of some of its groups. This, in turn, results in inadequate calculations for transfers from the federal budget, including social expenses. For these reasons, different sources of data on migration to, from and within the North Caucasus are considered in the paper. It is argued that data based on the Russian Censuses of 2002 and 2010 are not reliable in this case. This conclusion is supported by comparing the census data with data from other sources, including the studies of other scholars. It is further shown that the most reliable data demonstrate that there is an ongoing intensive emigration from the North Caucasus to other regions of Russia. The reliability of municipal data on migration is considered separately. It is shown that using such data almost always requires certain corrections. After those corrections, however, a rather unexpected picture emerges, under which emigration from remote rural areas is intensive, but no concentration of population in major regional cities is observed. Further analysis shows that that may be due to high levels of unregistered migration to such cities. This phenomenon is common for today’s Russia, but in the North Caucasus it may be especially wide-spread because there rural-to-urban migrants often live in suburbs where registration is poorly organized. In the conclusion, recommendations are offered concerning choice of different data sourced on migration in social policy planning in the North Caucasus.
The Kaliningrad region stands out for its history and geographical location. In the post-war period, the region was completely repopulated. People from many parts of Russia and other republics of the former USSR were recruited to develop the new territory. Although demographic processes and migration in the Kaliningrad region have been studied in detail, we believe that census and micro-census data can significantly advance the current knowledge of this unique region. This holds true for the data relating to the results of pre-survey migration. This approach differs markedly from traditional migration studies in Russia, which rely on migration flow data, in both data sources and migration criteria employed. Our study uses the place of birth data from the 1989, 2002, and 2010 censuses and the 1994 and 2015 microcensuses. We conclude that the proportions of residents born locally and in post-Soviet Asian countries have been increasing in recent decades. At the same time, the contribution of the natives of Belarus and Ukraine to the region's population is rapidly declining, largely due to the change of generations having a different migration history.
The paper analyses the age structure of internal migration across Russian regions. We use data on the age of interregional migrants in the regions of Russia in 2011-2015 given for one-year age groups and data on the population size of the Russian regions by one-year age groups. The regions were grouped into clusters (by the ratio of arrivals/departures per age group to the total number of migrants) using the method of k-means clustering with SPSS. The results of the analysis indicate that, as in other countries, the peak of migration is observed at young ages, which is explained by mass enrollment of school graduates in institutions of higher education. As people become older, their migration activity declines. In some cases, regions experience another migration peak in young old age groups: after retirement, people may move to a place more appropriate for 50-60-year-olds or return to their previous place of residence. The analysis also revealed significant variations in age patterns of interregional migration, both for inflows (arrivals) and outflows (departures). These differences mainly concern the level of the migration peak at young ages and the presence of additional migration peaks at other ages.