Новая культурно-интеллектуальная история российской провинции: (К 65-летию со дня профессора Т.А. Булыгиной)
In the introduction to the archival publication of documents by Hans Kohn the editors point out that Ab Imperio had earlier engaged with the scholar’s legacy. Kohn’s lectures published in the journal were delivered in 1919 and 1943. The editors briefly discuss Kohn’s biography. Born in Prague, Kohn became involved in discussions of Zionism early in his life. He served in the Austro-Hungarian army and spent time in Russia (in southern Siberia) as a prisoner of war. The editors argue that his understanding of nationalism was shaped by his historical encounters. In particular, Kohn’s lifelong commitment to Zionism was a formative influence on his ideas about political community. Kohn’s early embrace of nationalism was connected to his hopes for Zionism and his search for a suitable political language for describing a national community. In 1943, Kohn, by then a professor of modern European history at Smith College, had behind him several years of life in Palestine, where he worked in Zionist organizations and studied the Arab world. He also carefully observed and reported on the rise of Nazism and Stalinism in Europe. Kohn’s lecture of 1943 reflects more distance from nationalism.
The Life of St. Herodion Iloezersky (LH) is an unstudied monument of regional hagiography, which reflects the characteristics of this type of hagiographical texts. Life events of the Reverend seem quite trivial, if not to know their legal, economic and home background. The LH provides diverse material for the study of Russian hagiography in general and of the 17th century in particular, and of the local history of the White Lake region. Hagiographical text, which seems to have little information in terms of big history, is extremely important to local history and the history of daily life. The documentary legal materials complete the LH. In the spring of 1653, Archimandrite of the Cyril-Belozersky Monastery Mitrofan held an investigation, as a result of which a document was drawn up, recording the evidence of local residents about the events that were somehow connected with the Rev. Herodion. Accurate and legally significant record of evidence was the main task of the church investigation. The discovery of documentary materials for the preparation of the canonization of Saint Herodion, a variety of versions of hagiographical text, numerous documentary evidence about life of Ozatskaya rural municipality, where the saint was active, allows us to put the question of originality of the hagiographic text and of the definition of the rules, by which series of events reflected in the text of a legal document were converted to hagiographical text. Comparative analysis of the document and of the hagiographic text allows seeing some patterns of transformation of the legal document into hagiographical text. It shows that the story of an event being translated from the language of everyday life into the language of Kingdom of Heaven looses details, names of minor characters, dates, circumstances of the incident. Important is the fact that in the text of the life the central character of each story stands as far as possible, solo as a person interacting with a higher power, either directly or by means of only one saint, but never with the participation of other people who also fall into the category of circumstances without direct relation to the event. In the initial period of its existence hagiographical text was or could be addressed to the people who themselves were participants or eyewitnesses of the events described. In the stories about miracles in the LH between man and God there is the only mediator Rev. Herodion. Everything else, however important it may seem to modern readers and listeners, did not matter in the distant past (in their ordinary daily life). That is, the apparent causal relationship between events in one row, from the perspective of the compiler of the hagiographic monument and certainly in terms of audience LH was imaginary. Thus, the hagiographic text is subordinated primarily to one purpose: it must demonstrate the true (spiritual) nature of the event, and that makes all particular details totally unnecessary, including causal relationships that can only obscure the timeless meaning.