Америка за школьной партой. Как средние школы отвечают меняющимся потребностям нации
This study employs a unique database covering 2,293 cadets who graduated from the Noble Land Cadet Corps in St Petersburg from 1732 – 1762 to investigate the role of cultural capital in early modern Russia. Our analysis suggests that within this sample cultural capital was negatively correlated with wealth, but positively with father’s rank within the state service. At the corps itself, wealth and social status of families did not directly affect the success of their sons. The only significant factor of success at this school (promotion to a particular rank at graduation) was the family’s access to “Western” education and cultural skills. The results indicate the state was able to create an institutional framework where the possession of new “imported” knowledge and social skills gave the holder a measurable advantage over his peers. This could be considered one of the mechanisms which contributed to the sustainability of the cultural and social regime created by Peter I.
In this paper we consider the problem of inconsistency between levels of education and work in Russia. The study is based on the data from international large-scale assessments of adult competences (PIAAC), which provides us with the results of competency tests on literacy and numeracy of adults in Russia and the OECD countries. These assessment results are representative for the able-bodied population in each country at the national level. While test scores in the OECD countries show a linear correlation with the formal education levels, in Russia we observe distinctive tendencies. The analysis of the PIAAC data reveals three different inconsistencies. First, there is no linear correlation found between the assessment results and formal qualification in Russia. The increase of competence slows down or stops at the level of higher education, while at lower qualification levels there is no substantial difference between Russia and the OECD countries. The second important finding is that a significant proportion of people with low competences have high-skill jobs in Russia. At the same time, the distribution of people with certain formal qualifications on the labor market is quite similar in Russia and the OECD countries. This inconsistency was hidden for a long time due to low reliability of the most common indicator for both sociological and economic studies in Russia – the level of formal qualification. The third empirical finding demonstrates that both formal qualification and measured competences are significant in one’s employment prospects. However, the difference in incomes between people with low and high competences is noticeably smaller in Russia than the OECD countries. There may be different explanations for this finding. Either employers are not interested in highly competent workers or there is a certain difference between what appear to be the same job positions in Russia and other countries. The interpretation of quantitative results in this article is also supported by interviews from a qualitative project focusing on the life trajectories.
Today the demand is growing for information security experts capable of analyzing problems and making decisions in business situations that involve risk or uncertainty. These skills can be acquired through systematic studying of various information security incidents. In this paper we propose a framework of methods, tools and taxonomies for analysis of case studies in information security field. Our framework allows to study every situation in a formal rather than ad-hoc way, and apply a wide range of threat modeling, risk analysis and project management techniques under lifelike conditions. We illustrate it by providing a case study based on a real conflict situation between a free email service provider and a commercial bank.
The authors estimate contribution of different factors in reading skills of 15?year-olds by using four models of multilevel regression analysis. It turned out that the most significant factor is family background — not only at the individual level, but at the school level as well (average school socio-economic status of schoolchildren families effects average reading skills). At the school level the aggregated family characteristics of students affect individual achievements, and this effect surpasses an effect of school resources and localization of schools — those school factors that show a significant contribution to achievement. Attitudes toward reading and learning are significant at the individual level, but at the school level children’s attitudes toward reading and school don’t make an independent contribution to the individual results.
In response to a growing demand for highly proficient speakers of foreign languages, both from private and government sectors, an added emphasis has been placed on developing communicative skills in the foreign language classroom. While time in a target language culture certainly plays a valuable and needed role, this research demonstrates that innovative curricular design and development in the university foreign language classroom can equal if not exceed uptake that occurs in extended immersion environments. A thorough description of the research design is provided, including the application of lexical items (connectors), listening, reading, written exercises, and videoconference debates involving students from National Research University Higher School of Economics in Moscow, Russia and Brigham Young University in Provo, Utah. Assessment instruments used to measure language uptake among students included pre- and post-written proficiency testing and oral proficiency interviews in one’s respective target language as administered by certified American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages (ACTFL) raters. In addition, students completed a background language questionnaire designed to elicit data relative to individual learner motivation.
The book is to be used as a supplement to an Upper Intermediate course in General English aiming to develop academic skills of reading and writing around the topics and vocabulary of 5 Units in the course book «Upstream Upper Intermediate» by Bob Obee –Virginia Evans (1, 2, 3, 6 and 9). Each section of the book includes instructions on developing basic reading and writing skills and several tasks to practise the skills.
Institutions affect investment decisions, including investments in human capital. Hence institutions are relevant for the allocation of talent. Good market-supporting institutions attract talent to productive value-creating activities, whereas poor ones raise the appeal of rent-seeking. We propose a theoretical model that predicts that more talented individuals are particularly sensitive in their career choices to the quality of institutions, and test these predictions on a sample of around 95 countries of the world. We find a strong positive association between the quality of institutions and graduation of college and university students in science, and an even stronger negative correlation with graduation in law. Our findings are robust to various specifications of empirical models, including smaller samples of former colonies and transition countries. The quality of human capital makes the distinction between educational choices under strong and weak institutions particularly sharp. We show that the allocation of talent is an important link between institutions and growth.
The article examines the main trends in the study of the Stalinist period and the phenomenon of Stalinism in connection with the mass opening of the archives.