Америка за школьной партой. Как средние школы отвечают меняющимся потребностям нации
The article deals with fertility in the Republic of Dagestan, which markedly differs from the Russian average in fertility timing: the mean age of mother at the first childbirth in Dagestan is not rising and remains at a relatively low level. And there are significant differences between the ethnic groups in the republic that from the point of the demographic theory seems quite unexpected against the background of the ongoing modernization changes in the republic. Based on the analysis of the data from the AllRussian population census — 2010 and from the survey conducted by the authors in Dagestan, the article shows that the ethnic differences in the age of mothers at the first childbirth are remaining, even among women with high education level and younger age cohorts. Lack of neutralization of the ethnic differences by the character of childbearing in the educated groups of population is quite a rare phenomenon that needs a special explanation. Its possible social and cultural origins are the subject of discussion.
Today the demand is growing for information security experts capable of analyzing problems and making decisions in business situations that involve risk or uncertainty. These skills can be acquired through systematic studying of various information security incidents. In this paper we propose a framework of methods, tools and taxonomies for analysis of case studies in information security field. Our framework allows to study every situation in a formal rather than ad-hoc way, and apply a wide range of threat modeling, risk analysis and project management techniques under lifelike conditions. We illustrate it by providing a case study based on a real conflict situation between a free email service provider and a commercial bank.
The author appealed to the poorly developed in the Russian historiography of the topic of cooperation between the USSR and North Korea in the field of education in the 1946-1948 years. Long before the establishment of the DPRK in 1948 the state began to close cooperation of these countries was initiated in 1946. On the basis of archival materials SARF, RGASPI published works in the article attempts to trace the steps of co-operation in the field of education, preparation of experts in different fields of industry, culture and science. In 1946, several hundred students from North Korea and other socialist countries have been adopted in Soviet universities. The costs incurred by the Soviet Union to train foreign students, for one only year (1946-1947 academic year) reached very large amounts. Attention is paid to the goals and objectives conducted by the Soviet state policy toward North Korea formed a new government. Soviet Union provided international assistance, often free, to a great extent was detrimental to Soviet people. The study presented aspect is important in terms of a clear understanding of the policy of the two states, the formation of the main directions in the relations between the two countries at the moment, so organically linked with the past.
Studies on socioeconomic health disparities often suffer from a lack of uniform data and methodology. Using high quality, census-linked data and sensible inequality measures, this study documents the changes in absolute and relative mortality differences by education in Finland, Norway and Sweden over the period 1971 to 2000. The age-standardised mortality rates and the population exposures for three educational categories were computed from detailed data provided by the national statistical offices. Mortality disparities by education were assessed using two range measures (rate differences and rate ratios), and two Gini-like measures (the average inter-group difference (AID) and the Gini coefficient (G)). The formulae for the decomposition of the change in the AID into (1) the contribution of change in population composition by education, and (2) the contribution of mortality change were introduced. Mortality decreases were often greater for high than for medium and low education. Both relative and absolute mortality disparities tend to increase over time. The magnitude and timing of the increases in absolute disparities vary by country. The contributions of the changes in population composition to the total AID increase were substantial in all countries, and for both sexes. The mortality contributions were substantial for males in Norway and Sweden. The study reports increases in absolute mortality disparity, and its components.
The authors estimate contribution of different factors in reading skills of 15?year-olds by using four models of multilevel regression analysis. It turned out that the most significant factor is family background — not only at the individual level, but at the school level as well (average school socio-economic status of schoolchildren families effects average reading skills). At the school level the aggregated family characteristics of students affect individual achievements, and this effect surpasses an effect of school resources and localization of schools — those school factors that show a significant contribution to achievement. Attitudes toward reading and learning are significant at the individual level, but at the school level children’s attitudes toward reading and school don’t make an independent contribution to the individual results.
In response to a growing demand for highly proficient speakers of foreign languages, both from private and government sectors, an added emphasis has been placed on developing communicative skills in the foreign language classroom. While time in a target language culture certainly plays a valuable and needed role, this research demonstrates that innovative curricular design and development in the university foreign language classroom can equal if not exceed uptake that occurs in extended immersion environments. A thorough description of the research design is provided, including the application of lexical items (connectors), listening, reading, written exercises, and videoconference debates involving students from National Research University Higher School of Economics in Moscow, Russia and Brigham Young University in Provo, Utah. Assessment instruments used to measure language uptake among students included pre- and post-written proficiency testing and oral proficiency interviews in one’s respective target language as administered by certified American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages (ACTFL) raters. In addition, students completed a background language questionnaire designed to elicit data relative to individual learner motivation.
The book is to be used as a supplement to an Upper Intermediate course in General English aiming to develop academic skills of reading and writing around the topics and vocabulary of 5 Units in the course book «Upstream Upper Intermediate» by Bob Obee –Virginia Evans (1, 2, 3, 6 and 9). Each section of the book includes instructions on developing basic reading and writing skills and several tasks to practise the skills.
Institutions affect investment decisions, including investments in human capital. Hence institutions are relevant for the allocation of talent. Good market-supporting institutions attract talent to productive value-creating activities, whereas poor ones raise the appeal of rent-seeking. We propose a theoretical model that predicts that more talented individuals are particularly sensitive in their career choices to the quality of institutions, and test these predictions on a sample of around 95 countries of the world. We find a strong positive association between the quality of institutions and graduation of college and university students in science, and an even stronger negative correlation with graduation in law. Our findings are robust to various specifications of empirical models, including smaller samples of former colonies and transition countries. The quality of human capital makes the distinction between educational choices under strong and weak institutions particularly sharp. We show that the allocation of talent is an important link between institutions and growth.
The article examines the main trends in the study of the Stalinist period and the phenomenon of Stalinism in connection with the mass opening of the archives.