Деловой климат в строительстве в IV квартале 2020 года
The spread of digital technologies in the economy changes production processes and used business models. The technologies associated with the fourth industrial revolution, such as the industrial Internet of Things and additive manufacturing, have a significant impact on the production cycle in the manufacturing industry.
Based on short-term and medium-term entrepreneurial opinions and intentions, the work reflects the key aspects of the digitalization process in Russian enterprises, using the method of conjuncture observations and surveys, which supplements the methods of quantitative statistics. On this basis, taking into account the differentiation of the manufacturing industries into low-, medium- and high-tech, a set of trends in the digital technologies development, the industrial participation in digital transformation in the forms of the business processes digitalization and the digitalization of labor, as well as many other important indicators not measured or only partially measured by quantitative statistics is presented. For all the industries, factors hindering digital transformation were identified and ranked.
In general, a survey of managers showed a significant variation in entrepreneurial judgment regarding most aspects of the production digitalization. Despite the fact that the transition to Industry 4.0 is taking place in Russia on the background of rather unfavorable trends in the business climate, the resulting opinions allow us to state that progress is obvious, though the level of immersion into digitalization processes is not yet deep. Consideration of digital activity from the point of industrial separation view, as well as taking into account the classification of industries as low-, medium- and high-tech, allowed us to identify the industrial features of the digital transformation. In particular, it was shown that some technologies, such as the industrial Internet of Things, were predominantly distributed in the medium and high-tech segment, while others, such as 3D printing and RFID tags, were represented in most manufacturing industries.
The main promising areas for continuing research on digital transformation in the Russian manufacturing include expanding the conjuncture observation program by including other industries in it, the development of appropriate composite indicators, an analysis of the relationship between economic indicators and digitalization, a foresight study of the qualitative aspects of digital transformation.
The paper examines the structure, governance, and balance sheets of state-controlled banks in Russia, which accounted for over 55 percent of the total assets in the country's banking system in early 2012. The author offers a credible estimate of the size of the country's state banking sector by including banks that are indirectly owned by public organizations. Contrary to some predictions based on the theoretical literature on economic transition, he explains the relatively high profitability and efficiency of Russian state-controlled banks by pointing to their competitive position in such functions as acquisition and disposal of assets on behalf of the government. Also suggested in the paper is a different way of looking at market concentration in Russia (by consolidating the market shares of core state-controlled banks), which produces a picture of a more concentrated market than officially reported. Lastly, one of the author's interesting conclusions is that China provides a better benchmark than the formerly centrally planned economies of Central and Eastern Europe by which to assess the viability of state ownership of banks in Russia and to evaluate the country's banking sector.
The paper examines the principles for the supervision of financial conglomerates proposed by BCBS in the consultative document published in December 2011. Moreover, the article proposes a number of suggestions worked out by the authors within the HSE research team.