Атлас профессий будущего
The article offers a critical approach to the current discussion on the increasing of spare time and the reducing of the amount of labor in the digital economy. A common place in the discussion about the development of modern capitalism, characterized mainly by automatisation and robotization of jobs, was the hypothesis of reducing the employment of workers. Based on this assumption, many social theorists have postulated the problem of "spare time", which in the future will be too extent. This will lead to a number of problems, including unemployment and the sense of uselessness of a person. The author calls into question this forecast, referring to the consideration of relevant phenomena for the modern social theory - "digital labor" and "digital professions". The article also offers a new view on the relationship between the post-industrial digital economy and the world of medi. Based on the Marxist analysis of the cultural logic of late capitalism, the article puts forward the thesis that the untapped media world, which culturally mediates capitalism, removes the contradiction between production and consumption. Cultural production is fundamentally not reducable to full automation, since its very structure includes consumption. As a result, free time imperceptibly also becomes productive work for a person.
Global Technology Trends / A. Sokolova, N. Mikova, E. Gutaruk et al.; L. Gokhberg (ed.); National Research University Higher School of Economics. – Moscow: HSE, 2016. The publication was prepared within the framework of the Basic Research Program at the National Research University Higher School of Economics (HSE) and supported within the framework of the subsidy granted to the HSE by the Government of the Russian Federation for the implementation of the Global Competitiveness Programme.
The introductory article to the special issue “The Future of Energy” is devoted to promising areas of development of the global energy complex, the assessment of their contribution to overcoming global challenges, and ensuring sustainable development. The trends under consideration differ significantly in the rate of evolution. Prospective development trajectories present both opportunities and risks specific to the fuel and energy complex of a particular country. Success in using emerging advantages and leveling threats depends upon a combination of internal and external factors, including the choice of public policy measures and the effectiveness of their implementation.
The paper examines the structure, governance, and balance sheets of state-controlled banks in Russia, which accounted for over 55 percent of the total assets in the country's banking system in early 2012. The author offers a credible estimate of the size of the country's state banking sector by including banks that are indirectly owned by public organizations. Contrary to some predictions based on the theoretical literature on economic transition, he explains the relatively high profitability and efficiency of Russian state-controlled banks by pointing to their competitive position in such functions as acquisition and disposal of assets on behalf of the government. Also suggested in the paper is a different way of looking at market concentration in Russia (by consolidating the market shares of core state-controlled banks), which produces a picture of a more concentrated market than officially reported. Lastly, one of the author's interesting conclusions is that China provides a better benchmark than the formerly centrally planned economies of Central and Eastern Europe by which to assess the viability of state ownership of banks in Russia and to evaluate the country's banking sector.
The results of cross-cultural research of implicit theories of innovativeness among students and teachers, representatives of three ethnocultural groups: Russians, the people of the North Caucasus (Chechens and Ingushs) and Tuvinians (N=804) are presented. Intergroup differences in implicit theories of innovativeness are revealed: the ‘individual’ theories of innovativeness prevail among Russians and among the students, the ‘social’ theories of innovativeness are more expressed among respondents from the North Caucasus, Tuva and among the teachers. Using the structural equations modeling the universal model of values impact on implicit theories of innovativeness and attitudes towards innovations is constructed. Values of the Openness to changes and individual theories of innovativeness promote the positive relation to innovations. Results of research have shown that implicit theories of innovativeness differ in different cultures, and values make different impact on the attitudes towards innovations and innovative experience in different cultures.
The paper examines the principles for the supervision of financial conglomerates proposed by BCBS in the consultative document published in December 2011. Moreover, the article proposes a number of suggestions worked out by the authors within the HSE research team.