Сценарии роста российской экономики с учетом вклада человеческого капитала: докл. к XX Апр. междунар. научн. конф. по проблемам развития экономики и общества, Москва, 9–12 апр. 2019 г.
The principal result of this research is that the valuable skills have a negative and significant effect on alcohol abuse. We found that a higher professional level is consistent with a stronger negative relationship between earnings and alcohol-related behaviors and problems. The explanation of the result is proposed in that the pecuniary losses imposed on an individual by alcohol-related physical inability are positively conditioned by the valuable skills.
The human capital theory in recent decades has become a basis for educational policy in the majority of advanced countries. The expert discussions however often undervalue the recent research findings and developments related to this theory that since the 1970s have consistently refined and supplemented the understanding of characteristics of human capital contributing to the personal well-being and the socio-economic development as a whole. The lagging behind of educational policy from the advanced views on human capital leads to a decrease of educational impacts on the development of society worldwide. In the 21st century, there are fundamentally new trends in the socio-economic development that pose unprecedented challenges for educational systems around the world, including Russia. Despite the quantitative growth of the financial and time expenditures for education, the performance per unit of education costs decreases. The human potential created by education is becoming less capitalized: economic growth is slowing down at both country-level and globally. This leads to new attempts to justify theoretically the uselessness or unimportance of education for economic growth and the life success of an individual. So far, these attempts have not directly influenced educational policy, but in many countries already serve as a backdrop for budget decisions that are non-favorable towards education. Educational systems need to substantially complement the practices that contribute to the creation of key elements of human capital. In this regard, theoretical insights that have not yet became part of the mainstream discussion on human capital, but necessary for understanding how to build human capital to succeed not only in the short term, but also in the long term, might be useful.
Though foreign language is widely accepted as an important form of human capital and a factor of economic growth, the labour market outcomes for foreign language skills in developing economies remain understudied. This research explores the returns to different levels of foreign language skills in the Russian labour market and tries do disentangle the differences in return associated with job characteristics.
Based on a representative Russian survey data (RLMS-HSE) for 2008-2017, this study adopts several Mincer type models, adding controls for job characteristics, which are estimated using Ordinary Least Squares technique. By providing separate estimates for various professional groups, this research addresses the heterogeneity of returns which are associated with job characteristics.
The results indicate positive wage premium for foreign language skills in Russia which approximately equals to 9% when controlling for job-related characteristics. Moreover, wage premium for advanced level of knowledge reaches 24%. However, there is considerable heterogeneity in the economic returns across age groups, levels of education, and occupations. The highest return to foreign language skills is obtained by managers and results to be 13%. For elementary occupations the estimate appears to be insignificant which proves that return to foreign language exists only for a limited number of specific jobs
Smoking is a problem, bringing signifi cant social and economic costs to Russiansociety. However, ratifi cation of the World health organization Framework conventionon tobacco control makes it possible to improve Russian legislation accordingto the international standards. So, I describe some measures that should be taken bythe Russian authorities in the nearest future, and I examine their effi ciency. By studyingthe international evidence I analyze the impact of the smoke-free areas, advertisementand sponsorship bans, tax increases, etc. on the prevalence of smoking, cigaretteconsumption and some other indicators. I also investigate the obstacles confrontingthe Russian authorities when they introduce new policy measures and the public attitudetowards these measures. I conclude that there is a number of easy-to-implementanti-smoking activities that need no fi nancial resources but only a political will.
One of the most important indicators of company's success is the increase of its value. The article investigates traditional methods of company's value assessment and the evidence that the application of these methods is incorrect in the new stage of economy. So it is necessary to create a new method of valuation based on the new main sources of company's success that is its intellectual capital.