Сценарии роста российской экономики с учетом вклада человеческого капитала: докл. к XX Апр. междунар. научн. конф. по проблемам развития экономики и общества, Москва, 9–12 апр. 2019 г.
This article addresses traditional for social thought question of “structure/agency” relations in the context of current problems of socio-economic development at the global and national levels. The focus is more on general social theory. The key thesis of the present paper is that, in the context of negative trends in socio-economic dynamics and significant increase in the pace of social and technological change, the phenomenon of “de-structuration” takes place implying that in various domains of social life (economic, political, cultural e.a.) structures are more and more subject to change thus opening opportunities for “transformative agency” and creating new institutions that may potentially contribute to positive change in socioeconomic development. However, authors suggest that dominating approach in sociological research is insufficient to address these issues. It is demonstrated that human capital theory and, in particular, the T. Schultz’s idea about the “entrepreneurial element” of human capital, may be useful for theoretical elaborations and practical solutions responsive to challenges in socioeconomic development. Rich heritage of the Russian sociological tradition may help renovate theoretical and methodological toolbox of sociology.
The principal result of this research is that the valuable skills have a negative and significant effect on alcohol abuse. We found that a higher professional level is consistent with a stronger negative relationship between earnings and alcohol-related behaviors and problems. The explanation of the result is proposed in that the pecuniary losses imposed on an individual by alcohol-related physical inability are positively conditioned by the valuable skills.
Academic literature and expert communities actively discuss possible new sources of economic growth and social development. The task of maximizing the creative potential of an individual, including innovative, entrepreneurial activity – is central. The economy and society require a massive influx of technology entrepreneurs and leaders. For the education system, this sets the aim of preparing people who are ready for proactive action in the economic and social sphere. In the present paper, we consider the approaches to training and assessing the effectiveness of educational programs and courses in the field of entrepreneurship education in universities worldwide, and offer an evaluation of the effectiveness of such programs using the example of a course organized with the participation of RVC (“Russian venture company”). The authors hope that the results of the presented study will help to develop the evidence-base approach for creating an integrated ecosystem of entrepreneurship support, including the technological sphere.
This paper analyzes the role of education in economic growth with special focus on countries with high participation in tertiary education. The practical challenge that this conceptual paper is trying to address is that global economic growth is decreasing in the last decades – especially in developed countries.
This paper covers the interrelationship between international competitiveness and human capital. Human capital is one of the most significant factors of national competitiveness. Its role constantly rises in modern knowledge economy. Education and specific skills of workers considerably determine country’s positions in the world economy. In its turn global competitiveness of national economy ensures the sustainable level of prosperity and high living standards in the long run.
This article analyzes the evolution of theoretical approaches to the role of leisure in transition to innovative economy. Assessment of the economic potential of cultural and leisure sectors is based on a comparative analysis of household demand for recreational and cultural activities, government support measures to the cultural sector, and the creative industries development in Russia, including the export-import balance. The results of the study reveal a significant gap between a high effective demand from families with new requirements for modern cultural environment and the financial state support, providing advanced development of culture and tourism in Russia, stimulating demand in the creative sector, and the development of citizens’ creative potential. Hence, this gap leads to the supply-demand imbalances, increasing outbound tourism, and a sharp interregional disparity in the creative potential development. Underdeveloped sector of creative industries and limited opportunities for creative self-expression reduce the market capacity of culture and leisure supply, and result in a negative trade balance in creative industries, and outflow of qualified youth to foreign countries.
Smoking is a problem, bringing signifi cant social and economic costs to Russiansociety. However, ratifi cation of the World health organization Framework conventionon tobacco control makes it possible to improve Russian legislation accordingto the international standards. So, I describe some measures that should be taken bythe Russian authorities in the nearest future, and I examine their effi ciency. By studyingthe international evidence I analyze the impact of the smoke-free areas, advertisementand sponsorship bans, tax increases, etc. on the prevalence of smoking, cigaretteconsumption and some other indicators. I also investigate the obstacles confrontingthe Russian authorities when they introduce new policy measures and the public attitudetowards these measures. I conclude that there is a number of easy-to-implementanti-smoking activities that need no fi nancial resources but only a political will.
One of the most important indicators of company's success is the increase of its value. The article investigates traditional methods of company's value assessment and the evidence that the application of these methods is incorrect in the new stage of economy. So it is necessary to create a new method of valuation based on the new main sources of company's success that is its intellectual capital.