Дела плоти. Интимная жизнь людей Средневековья в пространстве судебной полемики
The author differs several approaches to law in classical eurasianism. These distinctions, on his opinion, are based on metalegal grounds – on «alleinheit» theory in the writings of L.P. Karsavin and on «phenomenological method» in the works of N.N. Alexeev
The chapter traces the history of evolution of Russian liberal thought in the span of the 19th century and explores how Russian liberals conceptualized the phenomenon of imperial diversity and related to the context of empire in thinking about potentialities of progressive Russian politics. The author explores the history of importation of blueprints of liberal universalism in Russian liberal thought and the development of the paradigm of national liberalism in reposnse to the challenges of the modern empire. The author argues that the idiom of national liberalism was not the only one. A different paradigm was in existence that may be called imperial liberalism. The chapter finds out how this alternative paradigm helped Russian liberals assume a significant place in public politics in the late imperial period, when the odds of mass politics were against classical liberalism. The chapter introduces the author’s finding of the transnational genealogy of Petr Struve’s program of “Greater Russia.”
This article is devoted to the Digest of the Laws of the Russian Empire – an embodiment of the operative legal system in late imperial Russia. Even though the Digest contained the law in force, and thus should be studied as a crucial source on Russian (legal) history, its meaning has been often overlooked. The reason for that is a remarkable difference between the original texts of laws adopted by the legislator, and their published form in the Digest. This difference came from the necessary editing procedures when every new piece of legislation was included in the existing system of the Digest. This strange feature of legal procedure when two different versions of a particular law – the original one and the one codified in the Digest – both remained in force should be considered as a part of official autocratic legality in late imperial Russia. Even though it may seem inefficient and irrational, the practice of obligatory codification of laws in the Digest existed for a rather long time – from 1835 until 1917. My research aims to find possible explanations for the Digest’s prolonged existence in the context of political and legal culture of late imperial Russia. What did Russian ‘official legality’ actually mean on the levels of theory and action?
Philosophical understanding claims to universality. Meaning, understanding, sense-formation are fundamentally human characteristics of being as a meaningful picture of the world. Sense-formation is realized always from a certain position, from a certain point of view. Therefore, it is always personal, communicative and socially representable. In this regard, the concepts and practices of philosophical sense-formation, proposed and implemented by Michael Epstein in a series of network projects and scientific monographs, as well as in the discussed article [Epstein 2019] are indicative. The author assesses the prospects of the modern philosophy of the digitizing era in the context proposed by M.N. Epstein "philosophy of synthesis". It is about philosophizing in the genre of projective dictionaries (philosophy, humanitarian knowledge in general). The projective dictionary appears as a single hypertext, which expands the scope of the conceptual integrity of the entire project. This approach realizes today's humanist position as potentiation of being, opening up new possibilities of culture. A projective dictionary, in essence, is a generative model that latently contains the energy of divergent vectors of further work, which can embody different concepts, protect different positions, but use a common terminological and conceptual resource.
The paper discusses the semantic models that determine the practice of the Russian translation of the key terminology of Karl Marx, as well as the ensuing consequences of choosing a simplifying interpretational strategy for such a translation and determining its political pragmatics. This strategy is a request for a scientific concept that rejects the prospect of capitalist development, as well as the goals of propaganda and political education. The terms der Wert (value), das Wertding (valuable thing), die Wertgegenstaendlichkeit (value objectivity) were translated as «cost» in the canonical translation, enshrined in the publication of the Institute of Marxism-Leninism (1937). At the same time, two fundamentally different aspects of the product der Gebrauchswert (value as utility is a quality characteristic, not quantifiable) and der Tauschwert (exchange value, the ability to proportionally exchange) were translated, respectively, as use cost and exchange cost. This interpretation formed the basis of discursive practices in education, social sciences, journalism, and media.
The «value» translation versions were actually removed from scientific use. However, the «cost paradigm» significantly reduces the analysis of market relations and contexts. This is confirmed by the appeal to the original texts of the first and second editions of «Capital».
Discussions regarding the transfer of K.Marx’s terminology in «Capital» are not only instructive, but have important perspectives. Nowadays, the question has grown beyond the scope of a word dispute. The failure of value-to-value reduction is manifested in the problems of neoliberalistic marginalism, the coming to the fore social and cultural (neoinstitutionalism, «culture matters»), psychological and communicative (R.Taler) factors of economic relations. At the same time, the value nature of market relations is important both in concepts like «global value chains» (M. Porter, G. Jerreffy) and in the practices of transformative investment (Impact Investing), including on the blockchain platform. This forces to return to the conceptual content of the original terms and rethinking practices appropriate narration.
Within a brief historical period, BRICS as an inter-State association has become an influential player in the world economy and politics. BRICS is a primarily political entity, and in that regard, the BRICS grouping correlates with the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO). However, not all the expectations placed on the SCO by the founding countries at the time of its creation in 2001 have been met so far. The question is to what extent expectations may be fulfilled in case of BRICS.
The article contains a substantiation of the prospects for a philosophical interpretation of history, as a narrative knowledge by nature. The schemes and levels of historical narration are considered. Special attention is paid to the specifics of the Russian history conceptualization.
The stable nature of historical narratives is associated with value-normative constants, expressing the features of the historical experience of a particular society. It is all the more important to reveal the factors of the historical narratives dynamics and the diachrony generated by them. Such factors are associated with the context of the formation and translation of historical knowledge, with the participation in the historical comprehension of various social groups. The task of the philosophy of history is not so much to give answers regarding the past development of society and to build generalizing narratives, how many to identify the questions that historical explanatory narratives can answer in the context of contemporary problems common to the entire Russian society.