Brazilian Foreign Policy Handbook: Positions adopted by Brazil in 2008-2009
The aim of this publication is to give an overview of the guidelines of Brazil's foreign policy in a wide variety of areas. The country's present position on the world stage means that its diplomatic agenda has become increasingly complex. For this reason the systematic and continuous monitoring of the positions taken by Brazil at the international level has become a real challenge. This Handbook has been developed to meet this challenge.
The work is dedicated to VaR models, estimated on the equities quotes of the six European countries. The time series cover three economic periods - pre crisis, crisis and post crisis, where the crisis period is the financial crunch of the 2008 year. The volatility estimation is based on the four APARCH(1,1) models and six distribution functions. The results of the investigation show the connection of the model with country's economic development and its financial condition at the different periods of time.
It was not until the early 18th century that Russia began to establish commercial and diplomatic relations with Western Europe. Peter the Great's foreign interests were focused toward the major states of Northern Europe, but the Iberian Peninsula was not wholly without significance for Russia. His westernization campaign extended across the Pyrenees. This tradition continued by the Russian empress Catherine II. Russian-Spanish relations, once terminated after the failure to connect Russia to the Viennese Alliance in 1730 , were reestablished since 1760. This article examines diplomatic relations between the two nations after Catherine II's ascension to the throne when Russian high-ranking diplomat, count Piotr Buturlin, was sent as an Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary minister to the Spanish court. Based on archival manuscripts (diplomatic and other correspondence) from the Archive of Foreign Policy of the Russian Empire, which were published for the first time, the research deals with the political and commercial relations between two nations during the early 1760s.
This edited volume provides an inclusive explanation of what, why, and how cities interact with global counterparts as well as with nation states, non-governmental organizations, and foreign publics. The chapters present theoretical and analytical approaches to the study of city diplomacy as well as case studies to capture the nuances of the practice. By bringing together a diverse group of authors in terms of their geographic location, academic and practitioner backgrounds, the volume speaks to multiple disciplines, including diplomacy, political science, communication, sociology, marketing and tourism.
We address the external effects on public sector efficiency measures acquired using Data Envelopment Analysis. We use the health care system in Russian regions in 2011 to evaluate modern approaches to accounting for external effects. We propose a promising method of correcting DEA efficiency measures. Despite the multiple advantages DEA offers, the usage of this approach carries with it a number of methodological difficulties. Accounting for multiple factors of efficiency calls for more complex methods, among which the most promising are DMU clustering and calculating local production possibility frontiers. Using regression models for estimate correction requires further study due to possible systematic errors during estimation. A mixture of data correction and DMU clustering together with multi-stage DEA seems most promising at the moment. Analyzing several stages of transforming society’s resources into social welfare will allow for picking out the weak points in a state agency’s work.