The article considers four approaches to the interpretation of images and mythologems from the sphere of Western esotericism in mass culture. The first approach is based on the depth psychology of C. G. Jung and aims to identify archetypes common to the whole culture. The second is based on the reductionist theories of Marx and Freud, its main task is to reduce religious imagery to social and psychological realities. The third approach is represented by C. Partridge theory of occulture, in which the emphasis is made on tracing the historical genesis of esoteric imagery in modern culture. The fourth approach is expressed in the writings of J. Kripal, it synthesizes the historicism of the theory of occulture with the understanding of mass culture as a way of self-knowledge, revealing the deep spiritual essence of man
Mayakovsky’s words ‘It’s Time, Forward!’ better than any political slogans, reflect the atmosphere in which Soviet cultural policy emerged. This book aims to declare a special preserve and methodological perspective for the study of Soviet cultural history. In it Soviet society is considered as a space of radical projecting and experimentation in cultural policy, which was far from homogeneous, often multidirectional, and sometimes chaotic and contradictory. It was a unique historic example of government intervention in the cultural sphere. The authors attempt to evaluate the social viability of institutions which formed in Russian society, both thanks to and in spite of Soviet cultural policy, and to assess the consequences of the decline and fall of some of those same institutions.
The book targets a wide audience, including culture researchers, sociologists, political scientists, historians, and anyone interested in Soviet history and culture.
The Varangian contribution to the formation of the ancient Russian state is highly evaluated in the national scholarly tradition, more specifically, there are practically no doubts about the Scandinavian origin of the Rurik dynasty. However, there is a certain contradiction in the so-called Varangian problem: given a huge body of archaeological data unambiguously confirming the active Varangian presence in Rus in the 10th–11th centuries, we can only have at our disposal a very limited amount of the linguistic traces of ethnic and cultural connections between Russians and Scandinavians at that time.
This book presents an attempt at the historical and philological study in the field of the cultural contacts between Scandinavia and Rus before the very end of the Viking age. The image of the ideal ruler, the practice of gift exchange, the concepts of the status and inheritance rights of illegitimate children, a narrative about ancestors as a way of characterizing descendants, and similarities between personal names, nicknames and solemn eulogies — these are, to name just a few, the intense points of this interaction which became the focus of our study.
The article is devoted to the problem of or- ganization of a productive dialogue between represent- atives of different sciences during the comprehensive interdisciplinary research of man in the context of tra- ditional culture. The prerequisites to the given prob- lem statement have been formed during a long-term experience of joint field studies made by the authors in Russia (Adygea, Russian North, Bashkiria, Buryat- ia, Kabardino-Balkaria, North Ossetia, Khakassia, Ya- kutia and other regions) and Mexico, as well as through the analysis of relevant results of academic and re- search work. As a solution of the given task, the authors develop the methodological construction “metaposi- tion” that allows to approach to complexity and inter- disciplinarity of research through the principle of dia- logue in the common sociocultural field. Metaposition as a technology of organization of polyprofessional co- operation of different experts in a common research space is aimed at development of scientists’ skills of fix- ation, systematization and representation of the re- sults of their work taking into account positions of their colleagues from other subject areas. Realization of this technology leads to creation of a metalanguage and to widening of researcher’s scientific culture (theoreti- cal frames of each expert, style of their scientific reason- ing and personal qualities). The development of meta- position as a stable system of cooperation between different positions of researchers suggests three inter- related stages: defining the research’s common field; re- vealing the borders of scientific positions; constructing the interpositional dialogue. Opportunities of applica- tion of the methodological construction “metaposition” at different stages of field research (before the field, at the field, after the field, during analysis of the field data) are concretized through a relevant algorithm and sup- ported by examples from the field practice.
This article examines the role of archivists in shaping the capacity and the structure of a university’s memory. Drawing on sources such as laws and ministerial instructions, the authors analyze the government’s archive policy with regard to universities and how professors and archivists were taking part in its implementation. Their participation included sorting documents and attributing them to individual ‘cases’, destroying some of the ‘unnecessary’ documents and preserving others that were designated for destruction. Based on information from service records and university reports, the article tracks changes in the corporate status of university archivists in nineteenth-century Russia.
The article is deмoted to intricacies of formation of the European intellectual elite in the Turkestan region of imperial Russia(after 1865). It is viewed through the lens of institutional development, consolidation, extinction and revival of popular science circles andsocieties. Specifcs of revival of popular science societies under the Soviet regime is also addressed by the author. Besides that, the paper deals with attitudes of political regime towards circles and societiesduring the imperial period and under the Soviets; with how authoritiesinteracted with the intellectual elite of the region; with specifics of involvement of European intelligentsia into the rise of higher educationin Turkestan as well as building up of archival service and institutionsfor the protection of historical and cultural heritage of the region.
The paper addresses the question, what is the underling nature of the Russians’ demand for the state support in three fields such as labour market and employment, social investments, and material sup- port. Based on the recent findings from social policy studies, the authors have tested four different mechanisms, which are as follows: (a) demographic features of the population, (b) household in- comes and disposable assets including human and social capital, (c) interests, and (d) locus control and cultural settings. Drawing on the All-Russia representative Monitoring survey conducted by the Institute of Sociology of the Federal Center of Theoretical and Applied Sociology of the Russian Academy of Sciences in 2018, the authors argued that population’s demands for the state support has very complex nature. Moreover, the relative impact of income has a paradoxical nature. On the one hand, the Russian data confirm the hypothesis of ‘altruistic reach’ developed in recent studies, which predicts that, in societies with high inequalities, higher incomes boost the probability of de- mands for the redistributive settings. On the other hand, higher incomes foster state escapism of those Russians who do not consider state as a reliable agent capable to solve their problems.
Within a brief historical period, BRICS as an inter-State association has become an influential player in the world economy and politics. BRICS is a primarily political entity, and in that regard, the BRICS grouping correlates with the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO). However, not all the expectations placed on the SCO by the founding countries at the time of its creation in 2001 have been met so far. The question is to what extent expectations may be fulfilled in case of BRICS.