Проблема субъекта исторического процесса в философии
An attempt of research of a ratio of the theory and practice in François Guizot scientific and public work is undertaken in this article. Guizot is the central figure of the French liberalism of the first half of the XIX century. The theory and practice of this thinker synthesized liberalism and conservatism.
The periodization of historical process determines a definite scale and scope to compare societies and identify their development level in a certain period. Such a periodization can be based on the most significant technological changes – productive revolutions (agrarian, industrial, informational-scientific). Industrial revolution can be divided into two stages: the beginning of the first one is dated to the 15–16th centuries (the early industrial revolution), the start of the second stage – to 1730–60s (the industrial breakthrough). Thus, the early Modern period (the late 15th – the late 18th centuries) is the time when both stages of the industrial revolution took place, i.e. this period can be considered to obtain an inner wholeness and structure in terms of the theory of periodization of historical process.
Phenomenology, that is the description of observed phenomena, is absolutely insufficient for a profound comprehension of global processes, so one needs some explanatory theories. The present article offers such a new explanatory concept useful for analyzing causes and trends of global shifts in historical process – the theory of production revolutions. The author reveals possibilities of using this theory to explain the logic of interaction between technological macroshifts, significant changes in social structure and qualitative growth of processes' scale (globality), connections and phenomena within the World System. Much attention is paid to the interrelation between the effects of the latest (information-scientific) revolution and globalization processes. Some forecasts for the future are made basing on the theory of production revolutions
The author argues on expediency and mutual conditionality of evolutionary changes in the nature and in society. In the article three major factors of the evolution are allocated, namely: the accident, the factor of coincidence of circumstances and the factor of acceleration of social evolution.