География. 9 класс: варианты итоговых работ: учебное пособие для общеобразовательных организаций
Based on the data of a representative poll performed by Institute of Megalopolis Humane Development in April of 2014 among 1516 parents of 1st through 11th grade students of Moscow schools, there are data being analyzed related to parents’ perception of preparation to and taking of SFT and USE. There are results given for groups of parents of school students of various ages: 1st‑4th, 5th‑6th, 7th‑9th and 10th‑11th grade students as well as a detailed information related to specific subjects of the school program. Most of those taking part in the poll believe that regular studies do not ensure passing of FST and USE with high grades with more than 30% of parents believing that additional classes would not allow passing with high grades either. Such expectations normally shape during the first years of their children spent in school. The major drawback for successful passing of FST and USE are believed to be poor training programs, whereas less than 20% refer to poor quality teaching. In parents’ view, students’ passing of FST and USE is accompanied by a series of challenges: starting from their persuasion being that exams are an inadequate tool for knowledge assessment to a fear of being unable to ensure they children a proper preparation to the exams. The authors believe that the issue of FST and USE has become a resource of social tension for families with children in a metropolis.
Sociologists have argued that high-stakes tests open the door to high levels of educational inequality at transition points: in a high-stakes testing regime, parents and students are able to focus all energy and resources on test preparation, thus enhancing pre-existing inequalities in academic performance. But arguments about a special role for high-stakes tests are often prosecuted without explicit comparisons to other types of tests and assessments, usually because information on other tests is not available. In this article, we analyze a unique dataset on a contemporary cohort of Russian students, for whom we have PISA and TIMSS scores, low-stakes test scores, and high-stakes test scores. We compare the role each test plays in mediating socioeconomic background inequalities at the important transitions in the Russian educational system: the transition to upper secondary education and the transition to university. We find evidence in favor of a special role for the high-stakes test at the transition to university, but we also find evidence that gives cause to question the standard assumption that high-stakes tests should be a primary focus for those concerned about inequality of educational opportunity.