Parliamentary Elites in Central and Eastern Europe
Legislators are entrusted with key parliamentary functions and are important figures in the decision-making process. Their behaviour as political elites is as much responsible for the failures and successes of the new democracies as their institutional designs and constitutional reforms.
This book provides a comparative examination of representative elites and their role in democratic development in post-communist Central and Eastern Europe (CEE). It argues that as the drivers of the transformation process in CEE, individual and collective parliamentary actors matter. The authors provide an in-depth analysis of representatives from eleven national parliaments and explore country-specific features of recruitment and representation. They draw on an integrated dataset of parliamentary elites for individual, party family, and parliamentary variables over the 20 years following the collapse of Communism and develop a common framework for the analysis of variations in democratisation and political professionalisation between parliaments and political parties/party families across CEE.
This unique volume will be of interest to students and scholars of comparative politics, elite research, post-communist politics, democratisation, legislative studies, and parliamentary representation.
The article is devoted to the problem of contemporary transformation of status of deputy of parliament. The author analyses the grounds and procedures of bringing of the deputy to constitutional-law responsibility in the context of foreign experience of application of analogous procedures of deprivation of deputy's mandate.
Traditionally, the common law countries are famous as countries of precedent law. At present times they are distin- guished by increasing share (proportion) of legal acts (statutes). This phenomenon makes more actual the issue of efficiency of law-making process. There is noted in the article that in international legal doctrine exists now such direction (school), as legistics, which explores elaboration of theory of law-making and of criteria of its efficiency. Author looks at specifics of law- making process in states belonging to legal family of common law. Despite this belonging these states are differed in its forms of rule. That condition permits author to clear general and special characteristics of law-making, ways and means of interac- tion of executive and legislative in parliamentary monarchy and presidential republic. Author emphasizes big measure of centralization of process mentioned in United Kingdom and other countries of Westminster model. It distinguishes lobbyism in these countries from lobby activities in US .In particular, author studies correlation of legislative process stages, influence of party discipline upon voting of deputies. Parliamentary supremacy is a root of significant role of legislative in law-making. In US model role of Congress was rather modest one. In the same time practice demonstrates both models currently are under change. Principle of strictly divided powers in US model leads to increasing role of Congress.
And role of Parliament is reducing in the countries of Westminster model of parliamentary supremacy. Author imple- ments various methodological methods in the article. Combining normative and sociological approach gives opportunity to analyze law-making process as a whole, to discover correlation of legally established social model and its social content, to check efficiency of such model in regulation of social interests connected with bill.
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The article deals with three constitutional projects of Francisco de Miranda, distinguished Venezuelan. It is devoted to analyzes of the characteristics of the project of 1798, based on the experience of British constitutional law and public law of Ancient Rome. Special attention is focused on provisions of the projects of 1801 and 1808: on temporary public power during the war of colonies for independence from Spain and on federal government after the liberation. F.Miranda used for these projects a constitutional experience of many countries. One of the sources of his intellectual reflection was the constitution of Ancient Rome, the most important elements of which were people`s assembleis and magistracy. These institutes were adopted by F.Miranda and creatively impleamented according to specific conditions of Ibero-America.
The author describe the legal models of the influence of business to the authorities: with the regulation of lobbying and without it. Analyzes the risks that accompany the regulation of lobbying in foreign countries: shadow sector, the impact of foreign States, promotion of the interests of large corporations, poor quality of the attached institutions. The author meditate about the possibility of regulation of lobbyism in Russia.
In the article are : the social bases of power as a nation, the nation, the elite, the elemental forces of the political market. It is noted that the idealistic view on social grounds authorities do not correspond to modern realities. Long enough described expenses provisions on the management Board of the nation. It is proposed to consider the rationalist approach in the determination of the constitutions of the social bases of power. The examples of the constitutions of a number of foreign States, in which the provisions of popular sovereignty is not understood completely. Russia proposes changing approaches to understanding the essence of popular sovereignty and representative government.
The article deals with the processes of building the information society and security in the CIS in accordance with modern conditions. The main objective is to review existing mechanisms for the formation of a common information space in the Eurasian region, regarded as one of the essential aspects of international integration. The theoretical significance of the work is to determine the main controls of the regional information infrastructure, improved by the development of communication features in a rapid process.The practical component consists in determining the future policies of the region under consideration in building the information society. The study authors used historical-descriptive approach and factual analysis of events having to do with drawing the contours of today's global information society in the regional refraction.
The main result is the fact that the development of information and communication technologies, and network resources leads to increased threats of destabilization of the socio-political situation in view of the emergence of multiple centers that generate the ideological and psychological background. Keeping focused information policy can not be conceived without the collective participation of States in the first place, members of the group leaders of integration - Russia, Belarus and Kazakhstan. Currently, only produced a comprehensive approach to security in the information field in the Eurasian region, but the events in the world, largely thanks to modern technology, make the search for an exit strategy with a much higher speed. The article contributes to the science of international relations, engaging in interdisciplinary thinking that is associated with a transition period in the development of society. A study of current conditions in their relation to the current socio-political patterns of the authors leads to conclusions about the need for cooperation with the network centers of power in the modern information environment, the formation of alternative models of networking, especially in innovation and scientific and technical areas of information policy, and expanding the integration of the field in this region on the information content.